1932

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN & ELECTIONS

OVERVIEWS & CHRONOLOGIES: 1932

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

OVERVIEW

Election Year: 1932

Election Day Date: November 8, 1932 (Maine held state elections in September)

Winning Ticket: Franklin Roosevelt, John Garner, Democratic 22,821,277 57.41% 472 88.9%

Losing Ticket(s):

  • Herbert Hoover, Charles Curtis, Republican 15,761,254 39.65% 59 11.1%
  • Norman Thomas, James Maurer, Socialist 884,885 2.23% 0 0.0%
  • William Foster, James Ford, Communist 103,307 0.26% 0 0.0%
  • Other (+) – - 181,175 0.46% 0 0.0%

Voter Turnout: %VAP 56.9%

Central Forums/Campaign Methods for Addressing Voters:

Stumping; public speeches; Radio addresses

Election Law/Campaign Finance Changes: Repealed primary laws Indiana (1929), Michigan (1931)

Incumbent President and Vice President on Election Day: Herbert Clark Hoover, Charles Curtis, Republican, 1929-1933

Population: 124,949,000

GDP: 133 Nominal GDP (billions of dollars): $58.7 Real GDP (billions of 2005 dollars): $725.8 GDP Deflator (index 2005=100%) 8.09 Population (in thousands): 124,949 Nominal GDP per capita (current dollars): $470 Real GDP per capita (year 2005 dollars): $5,809

Number of Daily Newspapers: 2,086 (1930)

Average Daily Circulation: 42,947,824 (1930)

Households with: Radio: 12,049,000 (1930)

Method of Choosing Electors: Popular vote (mostly General Ticket/Winner Take All)

Method of Choosing Nominees: Primaries and Conventions

Central Issues (Nomination/Primaries):

1929 Stock Market Crash, Great Depression, Prohibition

Leading Candidates (Nomination/Primaries):

Democratic candidates:

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt, governor of New York
  • Al Smith, former governor of New York
  • John Nance Garner, U.S. Speaker of the House from Texas
  • James A. Reed, U.S. senator from Missouri
  • Albert Ritchie, governor of Maryland
  • William H. Murray, governor of Oklahoma

Republican candidates:

  • John J. Blaine, U.S. senator from Wisconsin
  • Calvin Coolidge, former President of the United States from Massachusetts
  • Herbert Hoover, President of the United States from California
  • Joseph Irwin France, former U.S. senator from Maryland
  • James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr., former U.S. senator from New York

Main Controversies (Nomination/Primaries):

  • Hoover was mostly unopposed for the nomination, except Joseph Irwin France (Former U.S. Senator, Maryland) challenged Hoover in the primaries winning seven out of fourteen primaries as the protest candidate; Irwin wanted Coolidge to capture the Republican Presidential nomination.

Campaign Innovations (Nomination/Primaries):

  • First time a Presidential Nominee accepted the nomination with a speech at the Convention (Democratic)

Major Personalities (Nomination/Primaries): Al Smith, William Randolph Hearst Louis McHenry Howe, James Farley, Tammany Hall machine, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.,

Joseph Irwin France

Turning Points (Nomination/Primaries):

Democratic:

  • William Randolph Hearst supported John Nance Garner endorsements in his chain of newspapers
  • Alfred Smith wanted to run again, still maintained the party leader’s support
  • Franklin Roosevelt placed his named on the ballot in eleven primaries, but did not actively, he did not leave Albany or Hyde Park to campaign throughout the primaries
  • Al Smith (1928 Democratic nominee) defeated Franklin Roosevelt in the Massachusetts primary
  • By the convention, Roosevelt had more delegates than his opponents, but not the 2/3rds needed to clinch the nomination.

Republican:

  • Hoover entered the Maryland primary defeating France, essentially ending France’s campaign, especially since few of the primary delegates were the delegates voting at the National Convention.

Primaries:

  • Democratic 16, 40.0% delegates
  • Republican 14, 37.7% delegates

Primaries Results:

Republican Party: Jul 01, 1932

  • Joseph I. France: 1,137,948, 47.50%
  • Herbert Clark Hoover(I): 861,602, 35.96%
  • George W. Norris: 139,514, 5.82%
  • Jacob S. Coxey: 100,844, 4.21%
  • Hiram W. Johnson: 64,464, 2.69%
  • Olin J. Ross: 48,867, 2.04%
  • Others: 6,126, 0.26%
  • Unpledged: 1,236, 0.05%
  • Charles G. Dawes: 129, 0.01%

Democratic Party: Jul 01, 1932

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt: 1,464,607, 49.44%
  • James Hamilton Lewis: 590,130, 19.92%
  • Alfred E. Smith: 415,795, 14.03%
  • John Nance Garner: 249,816, 8.43%
  • William H. “Alfalfa Bill” Murray: 226,392, 7.64%
  • Leo J. Chassee: 7,372, 0.25%
  • Others: 1,849, 0.06%

Conventions (Dates & Locations):

  • Democratic National Convention: June 27-July 2, 1932, Chicago Stadium; Chicago, Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) 4th ballot, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York), John Nance Garner (Texas)
  • Republican National Convention:  June 14-16, 1932, Chicago Stadium; Chicago 1st ballot, Herbert C. Hoover (California), Charles Curtis (Kansas)

Convention Turning Points:

Democratic National Convention:

  • Roosevelt led in the delegate count, but did not have the two third majority
  • Tried to get the two thirds ruled abandoned, but risked losing the South’s support, therefore dropped the issue
  • Roosevelt’s campaign managers (Howe, Farley) made a deal with John Nance Garner to give him the Vice-Presidential nomination in exchange for delegate support of Roosevelt on the 4th ballot
  • Hearst agreed to the deal, especially since Roosevelt had repudiated the League of Nations the past February
  • Smith would had broke with Roosevelt refused to release his delegate so Roosevelt could be nominated unanimously
  • Roosevelt broke with precedent and flew to Chicago to accept the nomination, at the convention and give an acceptance speech. Roosevelt did to dispel talk of his crippled condition and “show he was a man of action”

Republican National Convention:

  • Former U.S. Senator Joseph I. France challenged Hoover for the nomination and won nine primaries, was removed from the convention when he supported the delegates nominate Coolidge
  • Hoover received 98% of the delegate vote, clinching the nomination on the first ballot.
  • The agricultural Republicans opposed Charles Curtis’ renomination, as did extreme hard money Republicans who supported Coolidge, both factions voted against Curtis

Convention Quotations:

  • “California came here to nominate a President; she did not come here to deadlock this convention or to engage in another disastrous contest like that of 1924. California casts 44 votes for Franklin D. Roosevelt.” William McAdoo
  • The New York Governor “is no crusader. He is no tribune of the people. He is no enemy of entrenched privilege. He is a pleasant man who, without any important qualifications for the office, would very much like to be President.” Walter Lippmann
  • “I have started out on the tasks that lie ahead, by breaking the absurd tradition that the candidate should remain in professed ignorance of what has happened for weeks until he is formally notified of that event many weeks later. . . . You have nominated me and I know it, and I am here to thank you for the honor. Let it . . . be symbolic that in so doing I broke tradition. Let it be from now on the task of our Party to break foolish traditions.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt accepting the Democratic Party Nomination in person a first

Number of Ballots to Choose Nominees:

Democratic Party Nomination

Presidential 4th ballot

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt 666.5 677 682 945
  • Al Smith 201 194 190 190
  • John Nance Garner 90.25 90.25 101.3 –
  • George White 52 50.5 52.5 –
  • Harry F. Byrd 25 24 25 –
  • Melvin Alvah Traylor 42.5 40 40 –
  • James A. Reed 24 18 27 –
  • Albert Ritchie 21 23 23 –
  • William H. Murray 23 – - -
  • Will Rogers – 22 – -
  • Newton D. Baker 8.5 8.5 8.5 –

Vice Presidential Ballot

  • John Nance Garner 1154

Republican Party nomination

Presidential 1st Ballot

  • President Herbert Hoover 1126.5
  • U.S. Senator John J. Blaine 13
  • Former President Calvin Coolidge 4.5
  • Former U.S. Senator Joseph Irwin France 4
  • James W. Wadsworth 1

Vice Presidential Ballot

  • Charles Curtis was renominated with 55% of the delegate votes

Third Party Candidates & Nominations:

Convention Keynote Speaker:

Party Platform/ Issues:

  • Democratic: New Deal reform policy, reduce federal spending, balanced budget, federal unemployment relief; new public works projects; repeal of Prohibition (18th Amendment)
  • Republican: Hoover slowed the economic crisis; Continual anti-depression measures; wage cuts; National Credit Association, Reconstruction Finance Corporation loans to public institutions and private corporations; Federal Farm Board; national, state and local governments balance their budgets, curtail spending; international conference (monetary policies, commodity prices, trade problems); shorter work week; limit military production, disarmament; Cooperative agricultural organizations; interstate utilities and interstate commerce regulation; immigration quotas; (repeal of Prohibition and allow state control over liquor traffic)?

Nominating Speech Speakers (President):

General Election Controversies/Issues:

1929 Stock Market Crash, Great Depression, Prohibition, Bonus Army incident (1932)

Campaign Innovations (General Election): Radio speeches/addresses

Major Personalities (General Election):

Robert LaFollette, Jr., (Republican, Wisconsin); George Norris (Republican, Nebraska)

Campaign Tactics:

Democratic Party:

  • Roosevelt wanted to show he had the energy and was physically well decided to actively campaign, “Roosevelt the Robust” and to outline his plans for economic recovery to the public
  • Whistle-stop tour that covered 13,000 miles sixteen major addresses, devoted to a specific topic/issues, and numerous minor speeches
  • Roosevelt’s “brain trust” academic advisers, political scientist Raymond Moley of Columbia University helped with devising policies, speech-writing; Big Jim Farley. his campaign manager handled the practical side of the campaign.
  • Wooed Democratic Party regulars, Smith even campaign for Roosevelt, albeit reluctantly;
  • Gained the support of Progressive Republicans; Robert LaFollette, Jr., of Wisconsin and George Norris of Nebraska both endorsed Roosevelt
  • Vice Presidential candidate Garner did not believe it was not necessary to campaign, a victory was in hand without campaigning. He gave one speech over the radio

Republican Party:

  • Hoover had not planned to campaign, instead he intended to deal with the economic crisis, working in the White House.
  • Democrats blaming the entire economic collapse on Hoover “Hoover depression” prompted to go in October and stump in person and through radio addresses
  • He gave nine major addresses
  • Hoover was the last president to write his own speeches

Turning Points (General Election):

  • Unemployment reached 23.6%;
  • Hoover goes on the stump in October 1932 and 9 speeches
  • Hover defended his policies, claimed, depression originated because World War I and abroad, not from with the United States, and that his policies “prevented a total collapse” belief in individual initiative and free enterprise
  • Hoover’s attacks the Democrats in Congress  claiming they blocked his efforts, attacked the New Deal, as radical, socialistic and foreign influenced
  • Insisted that there were signs of recovery, but business might fear Roosevelt’s policies, and prevent the recovery
  • Roosevelt wanted to respond strongly to Hoover’s charges unAmericanism, but was advised against it
  • Difference in approach, Roosevelt appeared optimistic, Hoover spread dread with his attacks and negatively, and appeared more shrill towards the end of the campaign
  • Hoover’s October 31, 1932 speech at Madison Square Garden New York, argued that a Roosevelt victory would result in more unemployment.
  • individualism vs. regimentation

Popular Campaign Slogans:

  • Democratic Party: NEW DEAL, “Hoover depression”; “In Hoover we trusted, now we are busted”

Campaign Song:

  • Democratic Party: “Happy Days Are Here Again”

Influential Campaign Appeals or Ads:

  • Democratic Party: Roosevelt called Hoover a “fat, timid capon.”
  • Republican Party: Hoover called Roosevelt a “chameleon in plaid” and criticized his “nonsense … tirades … glittering generalizations … ignorance” and “defamation.”

Money Spent (Each Campaign/Party/Overall):

Defining Quotation (Winning Candidate):

  • “I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people. Let us all here assembled constitute ourselves prophets of a new order of competence and of courage. This is more than a political campaign; it is a call to arms. Give me your help, not to win votes alone, but to win in this crusade to restore America to its own people.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt, DNC Acceptance Speech
  • “Destruction, Delay, Despair and Doubt.” Franklin Roosevelt comparing Hoover’s policies to the four horsemen of the apocalypse
  • “As I see it, the task of government in its relation to business is to assist the development of an economic declaration of rights, an economic constitutional order…. Every man has a right to life; and this means that he has also a right to make a comfortable living….Our government formal and informal, political and economic, owes to every one an avenue to possess himself of a portion of that plenty sufficient for his needs, through his own work.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Commonwealth Club Address, September 23, 1932, San Francisco, CA
  • “My policy is as radical as American liberty, as radical as the Constitution of the United States.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • “If I fail I shall be the last one.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • “Sit down — do nothing — and win the election.” John Nance Garner

Defining Quotation (Losing Candidate):

  • “Let no man say it could not have been worse.” Herbert Hoover
  • Grass will grow in the streets of a hundred cities; a thousand towns; the weeds will overrun the fields of millions of farms…..” Herbert Hoover, Madison Square Garden. October 31, 1932
  • “We are told by the opposition that we must have a change, that we must have a new deal. It is not the change that comes from normal development of national life to which I object, but the proposal to alter the whole foundations of our national life which have been builded through generations of testing and struggle, and of the principles upon which we have builded the nation.” Herbert Hoover, Madison Square Garden. October 31, 1932
  • “Indeed, this is the same philosophy of government which has poisoned all Europe. They have been the fumes of the witch’s cauldron which boiled in Russia and in its attenuated flavor spread over the whole of Europe, and would by many be introduced into the United States in an attempt to secure votes through protest of discontent against emergency conditions.” Herbert Hoover, November 5, 1932
  • “General Prosperity had been a great ally in the election of 1928. General Depression was a major enemy in 1932.” Herbert Hoover (Memoirs)

Campaign Quotations:

  • “Mine is not a personal candidacy. I represent a principle. I cannot tell you who the candidate will be, but it will not be Hoover.” Joseph Irwin France, RNC 1932
  • “Hell, I’ll do anything to see the Democrats win one more national election.” John Nance Garner
  • What this country needs is another Roosevelt in the White House.” Senator George Norris of Nebraska

Further Reading:

  • Roy V. Peel and Thomas C. Donnelly, The 1932 Campaign: An Analysis (1935)
  • Donald A. Ritchie, Electing FDR: The New Deal Campaign of 1932 (2007)

Lasting Legacy of Campaign:

  • Roosevelt victory was a landslide; he won 42 out of 48 states.
  • Hoover 17.76% margin of loss was the largest defeat for an incumbent President.
  • 1932 marked the end of the Progressive Era, Fourth Party System, Roosevelt’s New Deal Coalition would dominate the new Fifth Party System

 

CHRONOLOGY

  • June 15, 1929: “Hoover signs the Agricultural Marketing Act to revitalize the increasingly poor market for farm products.” (“It represents a marked reversal in federal policy; Coolidge had vetoed a number of similar bills designed to aid farmers during his presidency. The act creates the Federal Farm Board, designed to promote the sale of agricultural products through cooperatives and stabilization corporations. In addition, it provides for the purchase of surplus goods by the federal government to maintain price levels, and a $500,000,000 fund to aid the cooperatives.”)
  • September 3, 1929: “The index of common stock prices reaches an average of 216, more than double what it had been three years earlier. The increase represented the largest bull market the country had ever seen. At the same time, national income statistics indicate that roughly 60 percent of Americans have annual incomes below the poverty line, estimated at $2000.”
  • October 24, 1929: “Black Thursday”: the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) experiences a collapse in stock prices as 13 million shares are sold. Even wealthy investors J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller in an effort to save the market by furiously buying stock, cannot prevent the fall.
  • October 29, 1929: Stock Market Crash: “The New York Stock Market crashes, more money is lost on that day than had ever been printed or minted in American history.” (“Since investors could borrow up to 90% of the price of a stock, much of the loss of stock value was caused by an investor inability to repay the borrowed funds. Securities dropped over $35 billion.”) “”Black Tuesday”: a record 16.4 million shares of stock are traded on the NYSE as large blocks of equities are sold at extremely low prices. The trading continues the sharp downward trend of the previous week. It is an abrupt change from the over-speculation of the previous months.”
  • December 1, 1929: NYSE stocks lose $26 billion in value since October’s crash.
  • February 10, 1930: “A major bootlegging operation in Chicago is shut down with the arrest of 158 people from 31 organizations. Together, these groups were estimated to have distributed more than seven million gallons of whiskey nationwide with an estimated worth of around $50 million.”
  • June 17, 1930:  “Against the urgings of many economists, Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, raising duties prohibitively high on many imports. Rather than solve the economic crash, the act causes other countries to follow America’s lead by raising their tariffs. Such “economic nationalism” exacerbates both the international depression and nationalist tensions.”
  • September 1930: “A bank panic begins as 305 banks across the country close before the month is over. More than 500 will follow in October.”
  • December 2, 1930: “Hoover asks Congress to fund for public works projects in order to stem the growing tide of unemployment. Congress complies weeks later, providing $116 million in jobs for the estimated 4.5 million unemployed.”
  • December 11, 1930: “The Bank of the United States in New York City, with 60 branches and 400,000 depositors, closes. It is merely the largest of the more than 1300 bank closings across the country as the economic depression worsens.”
  • January 7, 1931: “The President’s Emergency Committee reports that the number of unemployed is nearly five million.”
  • February 27, 1931: “Over Hoover’s veto, Congress passes the Bonus Loan Bill. The act allows veterans to obtain cash loans of up to 50 percent of their bonus certificates issued in 1924.”
  • June 20, 1931: “In an effort to ease the worldwide depression, Hoover proposes a one-year moratorium on debt payments owed America in return for Europe returning the favor on U.S. debts. Passed by Congress in December, the policy does little to ameliorate the economic crisis.”
  • September 21, 1931: “Britain goes off the gold standard in an effort to solve the continuing economic crisis. Americans, fearing that the United States will soon do the same, begin to withdraw their money from banks and hoard gold. Over the next month, 827 more banks will close.”
  • December 7, 1931: “In response to the Great Depression, hundreds of “hunger marchers” descend on the nation’s capitol. They are turned away at the White House, however, unsuccessful in their attempt to present a petition to Hoover asking for jobs.”
  • January 22, 1932: “Hoover establishes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, an agency designed to lend money to banks, insurance companies, and other institutions to stimulate the economy. It will have $2 billion at its disposal.”
  • May 29, 1932: Bonus Army incident: “The first of nearly 20,000 veterans arrive in Washington, D.C., setting up camp in open or unused buildings near the capitol. They hope to pressure Congress into granting them the full value of their bonus certificates, which were not to mature until 1944. The “Bonus Army” fails in its objective, however, as they are eventually forced out of the city by U.S. Army troops in late July.”
  • March 15, 1932: New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt officially announces that he is running for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • 1932: Hoover enters the Maryland primary defeating Joseph I. France, essentially ending France’s campaign, especially since few of the primary delegates were the delegates voting at the National Convention.
  • 1932: William Randolph Hearst supports John Nance Garner, and endorses Garner in his chain of newspapers.
  • 1932: Alfred Smith (1928 Democratic nominee) wants to run again; he still maintains the party leaders’ support. Smith defeats Franklin Roosevelt in the Massachusetts primary.
  • July 1, 1932: End Democratic Party Primaries, Franklin Delano Roosevelt wins a majority of the primaries. Franklin Roosevelt places his named on the ballot in eleven primaries, but does not actively campaign; and he does not leave Albany or Hyde Park throughout the primaries. By the convention, Roosevelt has more delegates than his opponents, but not the 2/3rds needed to clinch the nomination.
  • July 1, 1932: End Republican Party Primaries, Joseph Irwin France wins a majority of the primaries. Hoover, however is mostly unopposed for the nomination, except Joseph Irwin France (Former U.S. Senator, Maryland) challenges Hoover in the primaries winning seven out of fourteen primaries as the protest candidate; Irwin wants Coolidge to capture the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • April 27, 1932: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates Jacob S. Coxey for President.
  • May 2, 1932: Social Labor Party Convention nominates Verne L. Reynolds for President.
  • May 4, 1932: National Party Convention nominates John Zahnd for President.
  • May 17, 1932?: Alfred E. Smith gives a radio address over the National Broadcasting Company network.
  • May 24, 1932: Socialist Party Convention nominates Norman Mattoon Thomas for President.
  • May 29, 1932: Communist Party Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President
  • June 14-16, 1932: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium, in Chicago Illinois, and renominates on the 1st ballot Herbert C. Hoover (California) for President, and Charles Curtis (Kansas) for Vice President. Hoover receives 98% of the delegate vote, clinching the nomination on the first ballot. The agricultural Republicans oppose Charles Curtis’ renomination, as did extreme hard money Republicans who supported Coolidge, both factions voted against Curtis. Former U.S. Senator Joseph I. France challenges Hoover for the nomination and wins nine primaries, is removed from the convention, when he tries to convince the delegates to nominate Coolidge.
  • June 16, 1932: Herbert Hoover sends message to the Republican Convention accepting the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • June 27-July 2, 1932: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois. Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) serves as chairman. The Convention nominates on 4th ballot, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York) for President, and John Nance Garner (Texas) for Vice President. Roosevelt leads in the delegate count, but does not have the two-third majority. Roosevelt attempts to get the two-thirds ruled abandoned, but risks losing the South’s support, therefore drops the issue. Roosevelt’s campaign managers (Howe, Farley) make a deal with John Nance Garner to give him the Vice-Presidential nomination in exchange for delegate support of Roosevelt on the 4th ballot. Hearst agrees to the deal, especially since Roosevelt has repudiated the League of Nations in February. Smith breaks with Roosevelt, and refuses to release his delegate so Roosevelt can be unanimously nominated.
  • July 2, 1932: Franklin Roosevelt gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Roosevelt breaks with precedent and flies to Chicago to accept the nomination, at the convention and give an acceptance speech. Roosevelt did to dispel talk of his crippled condition and “show he was a man of action.” In his acceptance speech for the Democratic presidential nomination, Franklin Delano Roosevelt pledges “a new deal for the American people,” marking his first public use of that term.
  • July 7, 1932: Prohibition Party Convention nominates William David Upshaw for President.
  • August 11, 1932: Herbert Hoover gives an address accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination.
  • August 17, 1932: Jobless Party Convention nominates James R. Cox for President
  • August 17, 1932: Liberty Party Convention nominates William Hope “Coin” Harvey for President.
  • August 20, 1932: Roosevelt gives an address in Columbus, Ohio, attacks Hoover’s leadership as President, and the economy. Roosevelt compares “the Hoover administration to Alice’s Wonderland in Through the Looking Glass; Hoover himself is depicted as “Humpty Dumpty.””
  • August-November 1932: “Roosevelt the Robust” outlines his plans for economic recovery to the public in a Whistle-stop tour that covers 13,000 miles sixteen major addresses, devoted to a specific topic/issues, and numerous minor speeches.  Roosevelt gains the support of Progressive Republicans; Robert LaFollette, Jr., of Wisconsin and George Norris of Nebraska, who both endorse him.
  • 1932: Hoover does not plan to campaign, instead he intends to deal with the economic crisis, working in the White House.
  • October 1932: Democrats blame the entire economic collapse on Hoover; “Hoover depression” prompting Hoover to go on stump. Hoover gives 9 major addresses and radio addresses. Hoover was the last president to write his own speeches.
  • Unemployment reaches 23.6%;
  • Hoover defends his policies, claims depression originated because World War I and abroad, not from with the United States, and that his policies “prevented a total collapse” belief in individual initiative and free enterprise.
  • Hoover’s attacks the Democrats in Congress claiming they blocked his efforts, attacks the New Deal, as radical, socialistic and foreign influenced. Hoover insists that there are signs of recovery, but business might fear Roosevelt’s policies, and which would prevent the recovery.
  • September 23, 1932: Franklin Delano Roosevelt gives his Commonwealth Club Address in San Francisco, CA. (Roosevelt wants to respond strongly to Hoover’s charges unAmericanism, but is advised against it.)
  • September 29, 1932: Roosevelt gives a speech in Sioux City, Iowa and attacks Hoover for “driving up the federal deficit.” Roosevelt accuses “the present administration of being the greatest spending Administration in peace times in all our history.”
  • Roosevelt appeared optimistic throughout the campaign.
  • Hoover spreads dread with his attacks and negatively, and appears more shrill towards the end of the campaign;
  • October 14, 1932: Al Smith announces he will campaign for Roosevelt by giving six speeches in 4 states; New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Roosevelt woos Democratic Party regulars, Smith even campaign for Roosevelt, albeit reluctantly.
  • October 14, 1932: John N. Garner gives his only radio address attacking Hoover’s policies, “gold standard remarks and Coolidge’s address.” Vice Presidential candidate Garner did not believe it was not necessary to campaign, a victory is in hand without campaigning.
  • October 19, 1932: Roosevelt gives an address in Pittsburgh, where he attacks Hoover for blaming the economic situation in the United States on the world economy. “We need not look abroad for scapegoats. We had ventured into the economic stratosphere–which is a long way up–on the wings of President Hoover’s novel, radical, and unorthodox theories of 1928, the complete collapse of which brought the real crash in 1931.”
  • October 28-29, 1932: Hoover completes short “whistle stop” campaign tour  through West Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana.
  • October 29, 1932: Hoover addresses a major rally in Indianapolis, and accuses “Roosevelt of spreading falsehoods and calumnies about the country’s economic crisis”
  • October 29, 1932: Roosevelt leads Hoover by a 3-to-2 vote in semi-final returns from The Literary Digest nation-wide Presidential poll.
  • October 31, 1932: Hoover gives an address at Madison Square Garden in New York, where he argues a Roosevelt victory would result in more unemployment.
  • October 31, 1932 Roosevelt addresses an audience of supporters in Boston about unemployment. Roosevelt criticizes the Hoover campaign for abandoning argument for personalities. “The Administration attempts to undermine reason through fear, by telling us the world will come to an end on November 8th if it is not returned to power for four years more. Once more it is leadership that is bankrupt, not only in ideals, but in ideas. It sadly misconceives the good sense and self reliance of our people.”
  • November 4, 1932: Hoover addresses a campaign rally in St. Louis, Missouri. President Hoover “again defended his record and attacked his Democratic rival. His tone was combative as he criticized Roosevelt for having sullied the campaign with misinformation and innuendo. It had been a nasty campaign and Hoover put the blame squarely on Roosevelt.”
  • November 4, 1932: “The Literary Digest’s nation-wide Presidential poll final returns give Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, Democratic nominee for President, a lead over his Republican opponent, President Hoover, in forty one states and, approximately, a 3-to-2 lead in the popular vote.” After 3,064,497 ballots the Literary Digest’s tally show 474 TO 57 Electoral College victory for Roosevelt, and believe Hoover will only carry Vermont and Maine, although some states are still close.
  • November 5, 1932: Herbert Hoover gives an address in St. Paul, Minnesota; he blames Roosevelt and the Democratic Party “for running a mean-spirited campaign.” Hoover again defends himself against charges that he is not an American citizen, and he claims Roosevelt will abolish the Federal Farm board if elected. “Indeed, this is the same philosophy of government which has poisoned all Europe. They have been the fumes of the witch’s cauldron which boiled in Russia and in its attenuated flavor spread over the whole of Europe, and would by many be introduced into the United States in an attempt to secure votes through protest of discontent against emergency conditions.”
  • November 1, 1932: Senator Carter Glass of Virginia gives a speech in Washington over the nation-wide hook-up of the Columbia Broadcasting System on the Hoover Administrations’ financial policies. (NYT)
  • November 2, 1932: Al Smith gives a statewide radio address from New York; that President Hoover, instead of “defending his administration,” was “talking to scare the American people.” Smith ridicules Hoover’s idea that the country would be in peril if the tariff is reduced.
  • November 8, 1932: Election Day; Democrats Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected President, and John Nance Garner is elected Vice President. (Maine held state elections in September)
  • January 4, 1933: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.
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