20th Century

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN & ELECTIONS

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

CHRONOLOGIES: 20TH CENTURY

1900

 

  • July 24, 1897: Dingley Tariff Law raises duties to approximately 57 percent.”
  • September 10, 1897: Deputy sheriffs in Lattimer, Pennsylvania kill twenty striking coal miners. Coal miners in Ohio, West Virginia, and the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania strike in support. Eight-hour day for Pennsylvania workers.
  • February 9, 1898: William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal publishes De Lôme Letter, an insulting letter to President McKinley written by Spanish minister to the United States Enrique De Lôme.
  • February 15, 1898: USS Maine explodes in Havana, Cuba harbor, and 266 Americans are killed. Suspicion mounts that it is an attack by the Spanish, leading the United States closer to war against Spain, and aiding Cuban Independence.
  • March 17, 1898: U.S. Navy concludes Maine explosion is caused by external factors.
  • March 22, 1898: Spanish Navy releases reports that contradicts American conclusions, claims Maine explosion caused by internal factors.
  • April 11, 1898: President McKinley requests from Congress to “use armed force” in Cuba.
  • April 19, 1898: Teller Amendment; Joint Congressional resolution authorizes President McKinley to intervene in Cuba. Spain severs diplomatic relations with the Unites States.
  • April 23, 1898: “Spain declares war on the United States.”
  • April 25, 1898: US Congress declares war on Spain. Spanish-American War; triggers national pride.
  • July 4, 1898: United Christian Party forms.
  • July 7, 1898: “President McKinley signs a joint congressional resolution providing for the annexation of Hawaii.”
  • July 17, 1898: “Santiago de Cuba surrenders, along with 24,000 Spanish troops, to American General William Shafter.”
  • July 25, 1898: “American forces invade Puerto Rico, encountering little” resistance.
  • August 12, 1898: “Spain and the United States sign an armistice in which Spain agrees to grant Cuba its independence and cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States.”
  • August 14, 1898: “Spanish forces in the Philippines surrender to the United States.”
  • November 8, 1898: Mid-term Elections. Republicans gain seats in the Senate, 53-26-8 lead. They lose seats in the House 185-163-9.
  • November 25, 1898: Anti-Imperialist League’s first communication to President McKinley is delivered. The league forms in 1898 in opposition to annexation of the Philippines from Spain. George S. Boutwell of Massachusetts serves until 1905 as the first President.
  • December 10, 1898: Treaty of Paris; Annexation of the Philippines and Puerto Rico
  • January 1, 1899: “United States takes official control of Cuba”
  • February 4, 1899: Philippine-American War begins, the Unites States’ move into the Philippines, which triggers an insurgency. Anti-imperialism movement builds some momentum as Unites States annexes Philippines and Puerto Rico.  “Philippine guerrillas, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, attack U.S. forces in Manila, beginning the Philippine Insurrection. The initial skirmishes, in which 57 American fighters are killed and 215 are wounded, last several days.”
  • February 6, 1899: Senate ratifies the peace treaty with Spain, 57 to 27. (“The United States acquires Puerto Rico and Guam, and assumes the temporary administration of Cuba. While the United States pays Spain $20 million for certain Filipino holdings, the sum is interpreted by some as payment for the outright purchase of the Philippines.”)
  • February 14, 1899: “Congress authorizes voting machines for federal elections, subject to the request of individual states.”
  • March 1, 1899: The Union Reform Party forms in Cincinnati, Ohio.
  • November 21, 1899: Vice President Garret A. Hobart dies of heart problems.
  • 1899: President McKinley makes a two-week, 80-speech Midwestern tour before the campaign
  • March 7, 1900: President McKinley signs the Gold Standard Act.
  • March 14, 1900: Gold Standard Act – US on Gold Standard, Battle of Standard ends in Republican triumph.
  • March 7, 1900: Social Democratic Party National Convention convenes in Indianapolis, Indiana, and nominates Eugene Debs for President, and Job Harriman (California) for Vice President. Their platform supports Government and ownership of business and utilities. The party renames the Socialist Party after the election.
  • May 2, 1900: 1st United Christian Party National Convention convenes in Rock Island Illinois, and nominates Silas C. Swallow for President and John G. Woolley for Vice President. Later both candidates are replaced for Jonah Fitz Randolph Leonard for President and David H. Martin for Vice President.
  • May 10, 1900: Populist (Middle of the Road) Convention nominates Wharton Barker for President, and nominates State Senator Ignatius Donnelly unanimously for Vice President.
  • May 10, 1900: Populist Party (Fusion Faction) National Convention convenes in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and nominates William Jennings Bryan for President, and Charles A. Towne for Vice President. Towne, the national chairman of the Silver Republican Party, later withdraws. Populist Party (Fusion Faction) wants to merge with the Democratic Party and does.
  • June 8, 1900: Socialist Labor Party National Convention convenes at Grand Central Palace in New York City, and nominates Joseph Maloney for President, Valentine Remmell Pennsylvania for Vice President both in the first ballot.
  • June 19-21, 1900: Republican National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The convention renominates on the 1st ballot  William McKinley (Ohio) for President, and nominates Theodore Roosevelt (New York) for Vice President. William McKinley is unopposed for the nomination. The convention focuses on nominating a new Vice Presidential candidate. McKinley prefers Senator William B. Allison of Iowa, but Allison withdraws from balloting. As a successor, rank and file Republicans like New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt, famed as a “Rough Rider” in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Mark Hanna and President McKinley dislike Roosevelt. “Boss” Thomas Platt of New York, helps break the logjam, he is motivated by his desire to get Roosevelt, an anti-machine reformer, out of New York.
  • June 25, 1900: The Anti-Imperialist League convenes in the Plaza Hotel in New York City. Silver Republicans, Gold Democrats, and independents attend to devise a strategy to best beat McKinley in the election.
  • June 28, 1900: Prohibition National Convention convenes at the First Regiment Armory in Chicago, Illinois and nominates John Granville Woolley for President, and Henry B. Metcalf for Vice President.
  • July 4-6, 1900: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri. James D. Richardson (Tennessee) serves as chairman/. Convention nominates on the 1st ballot William Jennings Bryan (Nebraska) for President, and Adlai E. Stevenson I (Illinois) for Vice President. The convention considers nominating Admiral George Dewey, a Spanish-American War hero, until he spurned any party affiliation. Democrats are still divided over currency issues, and are newly divided over imperialism/expansionism. William Jennings Bryan is nominated without any opposition. Bryan decides to allow the party and delegates choose his running-mate as he did in 1896. Adlai E. Stevenson is the front-runner after the first ballot, after several delegation switches the votes, he is  nominated. First appearance of royalty at a political convention, King David Kawananakoa the Hawaiian heir to the throne is a delegate
  • July 6, 1900: Silver Republican Convention convenes at the Auditorium, Kansas City, Missouri, and nominates/endorses William Jennings Bryan for President, they do not nominate a Vice Presidential candidate.
  • July 12, 1900: “President McKinley formally accepts the Republican presidential nomination in a speech at Canton, Ohio.”
  • July 25, 1900: National Democratic National Convention convenes their second and last convention in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Gold Democrats decide not to nominate a ticket.
  • August 16, 1900: Anti-Imperialist National Convention convenes for a two day convention at Tomlinson Hall in Indianapolis Indiana, and nominates/endorses  William Jennings Bryan for President and Adlai E. Stevenson for Vice President.
  • August 21, 1900: The Anti-Imperialist League writes an address to get voters to help end the military occupation of the Philippines.
  • August 27, 1900: The Populist Party National Committee re-assembles and decides to go with the Democrats choice for Vice President, Adlai Stevenson.
  • September 3, 1900: Union Reform Party National Convention convenes in  Baltimore, Maryland, and nominates Seth H. Ellis for President and the second top vote getter Samuel T. Nicholson is nominated Vice President.
  • September 5, 1900: National (Prohibition) Party Convention convenes its second and last convention at Carnegie Lyceum in New York City. The convention nominates. Donelson Caffery (Louisiana) for President and Archibald M. Howe (Massachusetts) for Vice President, neither appear on the ballot come Election Day. Edward Waldo Emerson is the party’s Presidential candidate on Election Day.
  • September 25, 1900: Adlai Stevenson accepts the Populist (Fusion) Party’s nomination/endorsement for Vice President.
  • 1900: Front Porch Campaign: At his Canton, Ohio home McKinley greets sixteen delegations and 30,000 supporters during the campaign’s peak.
  • 1900: Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley’s running mate, stumps covering 21,000 miles by train, giving 673 speeches in 24 states to an estimated three million people.
  • 1900: Mark Hanna moves campaign headquarters to Chicago, to force Bryan to protect his home turf too. 2,500,000 pieces of literature flooded Indiana, 3,500,000 in Ohio.
  • 1900: Bryan travels by train 18,000 miles to rallies in the Midwest and East, delivering 546 to approximately 2.5 million people.
  • October 1900: Bryan futilely attacks: “Money, trusts, and imperialism” Anti-Imperialism: The Democrats could not get traction on the issue, partially because Bryan supports the Treaty of Paris that annexed the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
  • 1900: Bryan oversteps in trying to woo Richard Croker of Tammany Hall, embarrassing himself by proclaiming “I am prepared to say that great is Tammany, and Croker is its prophet.”
  • “Second Coming of Bryan” – in his second trip to New York, Bryan stumbles by trying to resurrect the silver issue, but Bryan kept on trying to “stand just where I stood” on silver.
  • Until after the election Secretary of War Elihu Root buries General Arthur MacArthur’s pessimistic report that the Philippine-American War was not subsiding.
  • November 6, 1900: Election Day, Republicans William McKinley is reelected President, and Theodore Roosevelt is elected Vice President.
  • January 14, 1901: Presidential Electors meet to cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.


1904

 

 

  • June 11, 1901: President McKinley announces he will not run for a third term.
  • September 5, 1901: President McKinley endorses tariff reciprocity in his last speech, given in Buffalo, New York, “The period of exclusiveness is past. The expansion of our trade and commerce is the pressing problem.”
  • September 6, 1901: “Leon Czolgosz shoots McKinley in the stomach while the President shakes hands at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Czolgosz, an anarchist, admitted to the shooting, and he expressed no remorse for his actions. He died in the electric chair on October 29, 1901.”
  • September 14, 1901: “President McKinley dies from his wounds as the result of complications due to gangrene.”
  • September 14, 1901: Theodore Roosevelt succeeds to the Presidency.
  • 1901: Florida is the first state to hold a presidential primary to select delegates to a national convention.
  • November 18, 1901: United States and Great Britain sign the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty giving control of an isthmian canal to the United States.
  • December 16, 1901: Senate ratifies the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
  • June 28, 1902: Congress passes the Isthmian Canal Act, for the building a canal in Panama.
  • July 1, 1902: Congress passes the Philippine Government Act, defines the Philippine Islands as an unorganized territory and all its inhabitants as territorial citizens.
  • September 2, 1902: Roosevelt speech on foreign policy, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
  • November 4, 1902: Midterm elections; Republicans gain control of the House, 208-178 majority, and maintains control in the Senate, 57 to 33.
  • February 19, 1903: “The Department of Justice announces that the federal government would prosecute the Northern Securities Company (a subsidiary of J.P. Morgan) for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act.”
  • November 18, 1903: “United States negotiates the Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty with Panama to build the Panama Canal. The treaty gives the United States control of a ten-mile-wide canal zone in return for $10,000,000 in gold plus a yearly fee of $250,000.”
  • February 29, 1904: “Roosevelt appoints the Panama Canal Commission to oversee the construction of the Panama Canal.”
  • March 14, 1904: “In accordance with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Supreme Court, in Northern Securities Company v. United States, orders the dissolution of the Northern Securities Company. The decision is major victory for TR and his belief in the necessity of trust-busting.”
  • William Jennings Bryan refuses to run for a third straight time as the Democratic Party’s candidate, but endorses former President Grover Cleveland.
  • William Randolph Hearst, chairman of the National Association of Democratic Clubs, tries to boost his candidacy with Hearst-for-President clubs and a “Hearst Brigade” of reformers in Congress.
  • May 18, 1904: Ion Perdicaris, an American citizen living in Morrocco is kidnapped and held for randsom by Raisuli, a bandit. Roosevelt rushes to send warships and had Secretary of State John Hay to send the message “This Government wants Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead” to the American consul-general in Tangier. Morroc secures his released by then. Perdicaris was not even an American, but a Greek citizen, still at the Republican convention the slogan “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” is chanted.
  • May 4, 1904: United Christian Party National Convention convenes in St. Louis Missouri, and adopts a platform, but does not nominate any candidates.
  • May 6, 1904: Socialist National Convention nominates Eugene Victor Debs for President.
  • June 21-23, 1904: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago, Illinois, and nominates on the 1st ballot Theodore Roosevelt (New York) for President, and Charles W. Fairbanks (Indiana) for Vice President.  Republican bosses reject Roosevelt’s choice for a running mate, Representative Robert R. Hitt to punish the President for imposing George Cortelyou on them as National Chairman.
  • July 1, 1904: 9th Prohibition Party National Convention convenes in Indianapolis Indiana and nominates Silas Comfort Swallow for President.
  • July 6, 1904: Populist Convention convenes at the Illinois State Arsenal, in  Springfield Illinois and nominates Thomas Edward Watson for President on the second ballot, and nominates Thomas H. Tibbles, Nebraska for Vice President. (Chairman: J.M. Mallett Texas; Secretary: Charles H. DeFrance Nebraska)
  • July 5-6, 1904: National Liberty National Convention convenes at the Douglas Hotel in St. Louis Missouri, and nominates Stanley P. Mitchell Tennessee for President, but he declines. They do not find a replacement nominee.
  • July 8, 1904: Socialist Labor Party National Convention convenes at Grand Central Palace in New York City and nominates Charles Hunter Corregan for President.
  • July 6-9, 1904: Democratic National Convention convenes at St. Louis Coliseum I in Saint Louis, Missouri. Champ Clark (Missouri) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on 1st ballot Alton B. Parker (New York) for President and, Henry G. Davis (West Virginia) for Vice President. To thwart the newspaper publisher and Congressman William Randolph Hearst, New York’s Tammany Hall political machine and the conservative wing of the party nominate Alton B. Parker, a Bourbon Democrat, and Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. In an unprecedented move, Alton B. Parker sends a telegram after he is nominated saying he would only accept the nomination if the party supported the gold standard.
  • August 31, 1904: Continental Party Convention convenes their only convention in Chicago. Illinois. The party nominates Charles H. Howard (Illinois) for President and George H. Shibley (New York) for Vice President both of whom decline They replace on their ticket Austin Holcomb (Georgia) for President and A.A. King (Missouri) for Vice President.
  • Fall 1904: Roosevelt does not actively campaign, adhering to the precedent that sitting Presidents did not campaign; Roosevelt stays at Sagamore Hill Parker on his farm in Esopus, New York.
  • Fall 1904: Parker also refrains from the stump, attacks Roosevelt for “Cortelyouism”, for “blackmailing” corporations, for seizing too much power.
  • October 1, 1904: Joseph Pulitzer’s, New York World prints a full-page editorial accusing Roosevelt of corruption in the Bureau of Corporations. The editorial claims Roosevelt made George B. Cortelyou the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Republican National Chairman to bully corporations into making large donations.
  • October 1904: Roosevelt also called Railroad magnet E. H. Harriman and U. S. Steel head Henry Clay Frick requesting money to win New York State, (Harriman gave $50,000, and collected another $200,000, Frick gave $100,000). Roosevelt denies that too. Frick later complains: “We bought the son of a bitch and he did not stay bought.”  
  • October, November 1904: Roosevelt declines a $100,000 contribution from Standard Oil to demonstrate his virtue.
  • Judge Parker lets loose, condemning Roosevelt’s “shameless … willingness to make compromises with decency.”
  • November 4, 1904: Roosevelt angrily refutes the allegations in a public letter released saying he was speaking “lest the silence of self-respect be misunderstood.”
  • November 8, 1904: Election Day, Republicans Theodore Roosevelt is elected President, and Charles W. Fairbanks is elected Vice President.
  • November 8, 1904: “Roosevelt vows to not seek another presidential term in order to deflect Democratic charges that he would remain in office for life.”
  • January 9, 1905: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.
  • 1907: Evidence emerges that insurance companies contributed generously to Roosevelt’s 1904 campaign

 

 

 


1908

 

  • November 8, 1904: After winning the election Roosevelt promises the press and public, he will not run for President in the next election. Theodore Roosevelt has a  lame duck status after announcing so soon after his reelection he will not run for another term.
  • 1904: William Jennings Bryan undertakes a world tour, his profile increases as a result.
  • July 7, 1905: “The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) forms in Chicago, Illinois, to counteract the conservative American Federation of Labor.”
  • February 11, 1908: (Presidential Preference) Primary Ohio, Howard Taft
  • 1908: California (primary w/out preference), Taft wins.
  • 1908: Wisconsin, (primary w/out preference) Senator Robert M. LaFollette, Sr.
  • 1908: Pennsylvania, (primary w/out preference) Senator Philander C. Knox.
  • April 3-4, 1908: Populist Party Convention convenes in St. Louis Missouri and nominates Thomas Edward Watson for President.
  • May 1, 1908: United Christian Party convention nominates Daniel Braxton Turney for President
  • May 17, 1908: Socialist Party Convention nominates Eugene Victor Debs for President
  • June 16-19, 1908: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago, Illinois and nominates on the 1st ballot, William Howard Taft (Ohio) for President, and James S. Sherman (New York) for Vice President. Roosevelt hopes the convention would draft him, but fears a defeat would tarnish his legacy. Roosevelt seeks a successor; his first choice Secretary of State Elihu Root is “not willing to pay the price.”  His second choice, William Howard Taft, is also reluctant. Theodore Roosevelt pushes the convention to nominate his chosen successor William Howard Taft. The party is split about nominating Taft, they feel he was too much like Roosevelt, and too conservative. However, after Roosevelt endorses Taft, they feel they have to nominate him. Roosevelt orchestrates every aspect of the 1908 campaign, the convention, candidates, and the general election strategy.
  • July 5, 1908: Social Labor Party Convention nominates August Gillhaus for President.
  • July 7-10, 1908: Democratic National Convention convenes in Denver Arena Auditorium; Denver, Henry D. Clayton (Alabama) serves as chairman; on the 1st ballot, they nominate William Jennings Bryan (Nebraska) for President, and (John W. Kern) (Indiana) for Vice President. Bryan beat Circuit Court Judge George Gray and Minnesota Governor John Johnson easily, for the nomination on the first ballot; John W. Kern, a former gubernatorial candidate from Indiana, is nominated by acclamation as the Vice Presidential candidate
  • July 16, 1908: Prohibition Convention nominates Eugene Wilder Chafin for President.
  • July 28, 1908: William Howard Taft gives an address accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination.
  • July 29, 1908: Ice Convention nominates Thomas L. Hisgen for President.
  • Taft is not very good on the stump, reads long boring speeches, that are overloaded with too many facts, and makes tactless remarks that offends.
  • Republicans emphasize Taft’s experience as a judge, territorial governor, and Cabinet member, attack Bryan’s inexperience (only four years in Congress)
  • Roosevelt still dominates, actively campaigned for Taft, suggest Taft attacking Bryan. Critics said TAFT stood for “Take Advice From Theodore.”
  • Taft confesses, “A national campaign for the Presidency to me is a nightmare.”
  • Bryan stumps delivering up to 30 speeches each day. Advocate reforms; attacks  “government by privilege”.
  • Taft adopts many of Bryan’s policy proposals, making the Republicans progressive too.
  • Democrats and Bryan fail to secure labor support.
  • August 1908: Democratic scandal William Randolph Hearst publishes one of the the Archbold letters from Standard Oil Company files exposing secret deals with politicians, including, Oklahoma Governor Charles N. Haskell, Bryan’s campaign manager; Haskell resigns.
  • October 2, 1912: Collier’s Weekly October 5th issue states that the Archbold letters (five of the “Standard Oil Letters”) that were printed in Hearst’s Magazine are faked forgeries.
  • October 4, 1908: Hearst reads more of the letters. “Archbold Letters names Griscom, Cassatt, and Patten, Bailey is attacked in Texas by Hearst.” The letter to John D. Archbold describes a conversation President Roosevelt and ex-Congressman Joseph C. Sibley about the tariff.
  • Roosevelt accuses Bryan of “moral obliquity” for claiming innocence until proven guilty.
  • October 9, 1908: Bryan disclosed $248,467.25 in contributions from 50,000 donors.
  • October 10, 1908: William Randolph Hearst speaks in Berkley, California on behalf of the Independence Party ticket where he reads more of the Archbold letters. (“Standard Oil Man Tells Senator McLaurin He Hopes He Won’t Be Found Wanting. CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT Used, Says Speaker, Because Checks Would Involve Publicity”)
  • October 31, 1908: W.R. Hearst reads more of the Archbold letters at the final Independence League rally in Carnegie Hall. The letters include shocking and damaging revelations, including “a reply to Judge Morrison, promising to support his candidacy to the bench,” and “a Sibley Letter with a plan to subsidize/fund press bureaus of various publications.”
  • November 3, 1908 Election Day; Republicans William Howard Taft is elected President, and James S. Sherman is elected Vice President.
  • January 11, 1909: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 


1912

 

  • August 6, 1909: “Taft signs the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, establishes a Tariff Board and reduces the tariff.”
  • September 14, 1909: President Taft begins a tour of the southern and western states in gain support for his new tariff act.
  • September 17, 1909: “While on a tour, Taft calls the Payne-Aldrich Act “the best” tariff bill ever passed by the Republican Party, Republican progressives and party regulars are upset by his comments.”
  • November 10, 1909: Taft completes his cross country tour, he makes a total of  259 speeches. A Winona, Minnesota observer claims: “I knew he was good natured but I never dreamed he was so dull.”
  • November 13, 1909: “Louis Glavis, (chief of the Field Division of the Department of the Interior) accuses Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of conspiring “to defraud the public domain in the Alaskan coal fields” in Collier’s Weekly magazine; Glavis also implicates the Taft administration.”
  • May 20, 1910: “At a congressional investigation into the Glavis-Ballinger dispute, attorney Louis Brandeis, representing Glavis, reveals damaging information about the Taft administration. Congress clears Ballinger and the Taft administration of any wrongdoing, however.”
  • June 18, 1910: Taft decides not to greet Theodore Roosevelt when he returns from his trip to Africa.
  • June 20, 1910: Roosevelt declines Taft’s invitation to the White House, but praises Taft’s railroad legislation, postal savings bill, and conservationism.
  • 1910: Oregon is the first state to adopt the presidential preference primary into law. Presidential preference primary: The “beauty contest” allows voters to choose one candidate for the nomination, in addition to voting for specific convention delegates.
  • August 31, 1910: Theodore Roosevelt gives his “New Nationalism” speech in Osawatomie, Kansas. Roosevelt outlines his new radical social program that would expand the government’s social responsibilities, and take American progressivism in a new direction. Roosevelt advocates “conservation, control of trusts, labor protection, and a graduated income tax,” and aiding “the plight of children, women, and the underprivileged.”
  • September 5, 1910: “Taft rejects a proposed dinner, given by the National Conservation Congress, which would honor both himself and Roosevelt.”
  • September 10, 1910: “Taft, in a letter to his brother, comments that Roosevelt “has proposed a program (‘New Nationalism’) which it is absolutely impossible to carry out except by a revision of the federal Constitution. In most of these speeches he has utterly ignored me. His attitude toward me is one that I find difficult to understand and explain.””
  • November 8, 1910: Mid-Term Elections: Democrats gain control in the House of Representatives with a majority of 228 to 162 to 1. In the Senate, Republicans maintain control with 51 to 41 seats.
  • January 21, 1911: “Wisconsin Senator Robert LaFollette establishes The National Progressive Republican League in Washington, D.C.”
  • June 17, 1911: “Senator Robert LaFollette, a progressive from Wisconsin, announces his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.”
  • December 23, 1911: Theodore Roosevelt finally announces that he would accept the nomination if he was drafted, but that he would not campaign for it. Finding Taft too conservative, Theodore Roosevelt opposes him for the Republican nomination.
  • August 3, 1911: “Taft signs general arbitration treaties with France and England. Roosevelt, along with his friend and ally Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, lead the campaign in opposition to the treaties.”
  • Fall, 1911: “Taft tours the western United States to drum up support for his arbitration treaties with England and France. In March 1912, the Senate will approve the treaties, which are rejected by Britain and France.”
  • October 26, 1911: “Taft files suit against U.S. Steel for violating the Sherman Act. In papers filed for the suit, Taft alleges that Roosevelt in 1907 had mistakenly let U.S. Steel purchase the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. This action damages the Taft-TR relationship irreparably.”
  • February 22, 1912: “Theodore Roosevelt announces that his “hat is in the ring” as a candidate for President. Taft and running mate James S. Sherman are re-nominated together, the first time that Republicans endorse a sitting President and vice president for the party ticket.”
  • First time significant numbers of delegates to the national convention are elected in presidential preference primaries (362 Republican delegates from 14 states).
  • First time an incumbent President, Republican William Howard Taft, stumps for the nomination
  • March 19, 1912: North Dakota Primary: Democrat (Gov. John Burke); Republican Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Robert M. La Follette, Sr first challenges William Howard Taft for the Republican nomination, maintains some momentum and has early wins in North Dakota and his home state Wisconsin.
  • April 2, 1912: Alabama Primary Democrat: (U Rep. Oscar Wilder Underwood), Wisconsin Primary (Gov. Woodrow Wilson) Wisconsin Primary Republican, Robert M. La Follette, Sr.
  • April 13, 1912: Pennsylvania Primary, Gov. Woodrow Wilson wins.
  • April 30, 1912: Massachusetts Primary: Democrat (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark); Republican, Howard Taft wins.
  • May 4, 1912: Nevada Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark)
  • May 5, 1912: Texas Primary (Gov. Woodrow Wilson wins)
  • May 6, 1912: Maryland Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins)
  • May 7, 1912: Mississippi Primary (Rep. Oscar Wilder Underwood wins)
  • May 14, 1912: California Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins)
  • May 21, 1912: Ohio Primary (Gov. Judson Harmon wins)
  • May 28, 1912: New Jersey Primary (Gov. Woodrow Wilson wins)
  • May 29, 1912: Arizona Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins)
  • May 31, 1912: Rhode Island Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins)
  • June 4, 1912: South Dakota Primary (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins)
  • June 18-22, 1912: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago, Illinois renominates 1st ballot William Howard Taft (Ohio) for President, and James S. Sherman (New York) for Vice President. Although Theodore Roosevelt wins 9 Republican Presidential primaries, 278 delegates to 36 for La Follette and 48 for Taft, the pledges are not binding at the convention. With “Old Guard” supporting Taft, Taft is able to gather enough delegates to secure the nomination and shut out Roosevelt. At the convention, Roosevelt challenges the delegates’ credentials. Southern delegates support Taft by a margin of 5-1, and Taft secures Alabama, Arizona, and California’s delegates even though Roosevelt wins the states by close margins.
  • June 22, 1912: Roosevelt asks his supporters to abstain from voting and to leave the convention. Convention chairman Elihu Root, Roosevelt’s former ally, proposes the convention renominate President Taft and Vice President James S. Sherman
  • July 12, 1912: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Eugene Wilder Chafin for President,
  • August 5-7, 1912: Progressive Party Convention nominates Theodore Roosevelt for President, and Senator Hiram Johnson of California for Vice President. The party forms when Roosevelt and his supporters split from the Republican party after re-nominating William Howard Taft;  Supporters included social workers, reformers, intellectuals, feminists, Republican insurgents, disgruntled politicians, businessmen “New Nationalism.” Radical progressive platform “Covenant with the People; Popularly known as the “Bull Moose Party”
  • Fall 1912: Republican Party runs a quiet campaign; Taft for the most part does not stump, saying the incumbent President does not campaign. Conservative Old Guard control increases over the Republican Party.
  • Fall 1912: Taft called Roosevelt’s supporters and Republican defectors who formed the Progressive Party “labor, socialistic, discontented, ragtag, and bobtail variety.”
  • Fall 1912: Woodrow Wilson prefers a dignified style. Bryan actively campaigns for Wilson out West.
  • Fall 1912: Roosevelt campaigns vigorously; claims the Republican nomination was stolen from him.
  • October 14, 1912: A mad saloonkeeper, John F. Schrank in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, shoots Roosevelt. The bullet went through his steel eyeglass case, and a 50-page copy of his speech in his jacket before it lodged in his chest. Roosevelt nevertheless delivered his speech
  • October 30, 1912: Republican Vice Presidential candidate James S. Sherman dies. Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler replaces him on the Republican ticket.
  • November 5, 1912: Election Day, Democrats Woodrow Wilson is elected President, Thomas R. Marshall is elected Vice President.
  • January 13, 1913: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their respective state capitols.
  • 1912: New York Primary, Howard Taft wins.
  • 1912: Nevada Primary, Howard Taft wins.
  • April 9, 1912: Illinois Primary: Democrat, Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark wins; Republican, Theodore Roosevelt wins. When Theodore Roosevelt enters the race, progressives abandon La Follette to support Roosevelt.
  • Apr 10, 1912: Social Labor Party Convention nominates Arthur Elmer Reimer for President.
  • Pennsylvania, Nebraska, Oregon, Maryland, California, Ohio, New Jersey, South Dakota Primaries: Republican Theodore Roosevelt wins.
  • April 19, 1912: Nebraska Primary, Democrat (Speaker of the House James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark), OR (Gov. Woodrow Wilson)
  • Theodore Roosevelt wins the most delegates and elections in the new Presidential preference primaries
  • May 1, 1912: Florida Primary (Unpledged), Georgia (Rep. Oscar Wilder Underwood)
  • May 18, 1912: Socialist Party Convention nominates Eugene Victor Debs for President.
  • June 25-July 2, 1912: Democratic National Convention convenes at the 5th Maryland Regiment Armory in Baltimore, Maryland. Ollie M. James (Kentucky) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 46th ballot Woodrow Wilson (New Jersey) for President, Thomas R. Marshall (Indiana) for Vice President. There are 10 nominees competing for the Presidential nomination. House Speaker Champ Clark becomes the front-runner with the endorsement of New York’s Tammany Hall and Wall Street. William Jennings Bryan, still influential, blocks Clark’s nomination after hearing of the Tammy Hall endorsement. On the 14th ballot, Bryan switches support to Woodrow Wilson, Governor of New Jersey. Wilson is nominated on the 46th ballot. Thomas R. Marshall shifts Indiana’s votes to Wilson; later is designated as Wilson’s running mate

 


1916

 

  • October 3, 1913: “President Wilson signs the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act, considerably reducing tariff rates set by previous Republican administrations.”
  • October 14, 1914: President Wilson signs into law the Clayton Anti-trust Act.  “The law advances the third leg corporate regulation of his “New Freedom” program. The law strengthens the original Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890 by prohibiting exclusive sales contracts, predatory pricing, rebates, inter-corporate stock holdings, and interlocking directorates in corporations capitalized at $1 million or more in the same area of business. The act restricts the use of the injunction against labor, and it legalizes peaceful strikes, picketing, and boycotts.”
  • November 3, 1914: Mid-Term Elections: “Democrats gain five seats in the Senate giving them a 56-40 majority. Democrats lose 61 seats in the House, but still maintain a 230-196 majority, nine seats are held by minor parties.”
  • May 7, 1915: A German U-Boat torpedoes the British passenger liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. “The American public recoils at the loss of 1,198 civilians, including 114 Americans. The Wilson administration issues a fiery response to Germany, holding that nation responsible for the loss of American lives and the violation of American neutrality. Eager to keep the United States at bay, Berlin promptly expresses its regret but claims that the British were illegally smuggling arms aboard the ship.”
  • June 7, 1915: “William Jennings Bryan resigns as secretary of state in protest over the Wilson administration’s handling of the Lusitania sinking. Bryan thinks Wilson is acting too boldly and calls on him to take a more moderate approach, banning American travel on belligerents’ ships. Wilson names Robert Lansing acting secretary of state.”
  • July 21, 1915: “A third Lusitania note is dispatched to Germany, warning the nation that any consequent violation of American rights would be viewed as “deliberately unfriendly.””
  • 1912-1916: Presidential primary laws are passed in 25 states.
  • 1916: Uneventful 1916 Republican primary race halts the growth of some the Progressive electoral reforms; initiative, referendum, and recall, as did disappointment in the results of some of the reforms.
  • March 11, 1916: Socialist Party Convention nominates Allan Louis Benson for President. It is the first time Eugene Debs does not lead the Socialist Party in an election.
  • April 3-May 20, 1916: Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt wins the Progressive party primaries.
  • May 3, 1916: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Arthur Elmer Reimer for President.
  • May 5, 1916: “Germany issues the “Sussex Pledge” after a U-Boat sinks another passenger ship, the French liner Sussex, without warning on April 24. Following protests from Washington about German unrestricted submarine attacks, the German government promises not to sink any more merchant ships without prior warning and without time for passengers and crew to abandon ship.”
  • May 16, 1916: Socialist Party Primaries endorse Allan Louis Benson.
  • June 3, 1916: “Congress passes the National Defense Act in response to deteriorating relations between Germany and the United States. The act bolsters the standing Army to 175,000 and the National Guard to 450,000.”
  • July 1, 1916: End Democratic Party Primaries, Woodrow Wilson wins
  • July 1, 1916: End Republican Party Primaries, Unpledged
  • June 7-10, 1916: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago Illinois, nominates on the 3rd ballot, Charles Evans Hughes (New York) for President, and Charles W. Fairbanks (Indiana) for Vice President.  Progressive Republicans support Roosevelt for the nomination. His name is entered on the ballot, which causes a demonstration and calls to “Throw him out!” Leading candidates are conservative Senator Elihu Root of New York, and liberal Senator John W. Weeks of Massachusetts; Roosevelt is still strong enough to prevent Elihu Root’s nomination, because as Republican National Convention chairman in 1912, Root orchestrated Taft’s renomination. Charles Evans Hughes, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from New Yorkis nominated on the third ballot as the compromise candidate with William Howard Taft’s support. Charles Fairbanks, Roosevelt’s Vice President is nominated for Vice President.
  • June 10, 1916: Progressive Party Convention convenes, no nominee emerges from the convention. The Progressive Party meets simultaneously as the Republican Convention, and renominates former President Theodore Roosevelt, who declines the nomination and instead supports Republican candidate Charles Hughes.
  • June 14-16, 1916: Democratic National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Saint Louis, Missouri. Ollie M. James (Kentucky) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot Woodrow Wilson (New Jersey) for President, and Thomas R. Marshall (Indiana) for Vice President. The Convention’s themes emphasize peace and neutrality: “He kept us out of the war”; Wilson replaces William McCombs as the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee/Convention with Vance McCormick. Wilson supports a more Progressive platform.
  • July 21, 1916: Prohibition Party Convention nominates James Frank Hanly for President.
  • June 23, 1916: Roosevelt writes a letter declining the Progressive nomination, by urging Progressives to unit with the Republican Party and support Hughes for President, claims it is the only way to defeat Wilson in the election.
  • July 25, 1916: Anti-Masonic Party Convention nominates/endorses Charles Evans Hughes for President.
  • August 1904: Hughes fails to call on California’s popular Progressive Republican governor, Hiram Johnson, when both stay at the same hotel in Long Beach, California. Apparently, Hughes is not aware that Johnson is staying there.
  • September 2, 1916: Woodrow Wilson gives an address at Sea Girt, New Jersey accepting the Democratic Nomination for President.
  • September 29, 1916: “Wilson sent an aggressive telegram to Jeremiah O’Leary, a pro-German, anti-British Irish leader, who had demanded Wilson clarify his position on the war. “I would be deeply mortified to have you or anybody like you vote for me,” Wilson wired back. “Since you have access to many disloyal Americans and I have not, I will ask you to convey this message to them.” Wilson’s jingoism electrified Americans, fueling the growing backlash against “hyphenate Americas.””
  • September-October 1904: Wilson gives Front porch speeches at Shadow Lawn as election day neared.
  • September 19, 1916: National Democratic headquarters announces that Wilson will give his forst campaign address on Saturday, September 23, at 3 o’clock at Shadow Lawn, Long Branch. Wilson decides to give very few campaign addresses in the fall.
  • September 23, 1916: Wilson gives his first campaign speech at Shadow Lawn, Long Branch.
  • September 26, 1916: “SEABURY TO SEE WILSON.” Conference at Shadow Lawn, Wilson campaign announces Wilson will give a campaign address in Chicago.
  • October 5, 1916: Wilson begins a speaking tour of the mid-west, addresses Omaha.
  • October 12, 1916: Wilson addresses Indianapolis.
  • October 13, 1916: “WILSON TO ATTACK REPUBLICANS TODAY; Will Talk to a Great Delegation from Pennsylvania at Shadow Lawn. READS REPORT ON U-BOAT His Reception in Indianapolis Showed His Personal Popularity in the Hoosier State.” President Wilson returned to Shadow Lawn from Indianapolis shortly after 2 o’clock this afternoon. It was announced today that he had decided to speak in Buffalo on Oct. 30, and in New York City on Oct. 31. Both speeches, in accordance with the policy marked out at the beginning of the campaign, will be before non-partisan organizations.” (NYT)
  • October 19, 1916: Wilson speaks in Chicago.
  • October 30, 1916: Wilson speaks in Buffalo.
  • October 28, 1916: “President Wilson spoke at Shadow Lawn today to an audience of at least 15,000 persons. He accused the Republican Party of endangering the counsels of the nation “to settle a family, quarrel” and and held up to ridicule their “gyrations” on the tariff question and the “disappearance” of issues which they raised earlier in the campaign.”
  • October 31, 1916: Wilson speaks in New York City.
  • November 7, 1916: Election Day, Democrat Woodrow Wilson is reelected  President, and Thomas R. Marshall is reelected Vice President. Despite many other tensions between Hughes and Johnson and their warring factions, many Republicans blamed the backlash against the supposed snub when Hughes lost California – and the election — by under 4000 votes.
  • January 8, 1917: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 

 


1920

 

 

  • April 4-6, 1917: “Congress debates and votes on a declaration of war against Germany. The Senate approves the declaration on April 4 by a vote of 82-6; on April 6, the House of Representatives passes the resolution by a vote of 373-50. Wilson signs the declaration on April 6.”
  • June 26, 1917: First U.S. troops arrive in France at St. Nazaire.
  • November 3, 1917: “The first engagement involving U.S. forces in Europe takes place near the Rhine-Marne Canal in France.”
  • December 18, 1917: “Congress submits the Eighteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution to the states for ratification. The amendment forbids the sale, manufacture, or transport of alcohol except under special circumstances.”
  • January 8, 1918: Wilson gives his “14 Points” to Congress outlining peace after the war, the basis of the League of Nations.
  • September 30, 1918: “President Wilson addresses the Senate with the message that women’s suffrage was a “vitally necessary war measure.””
  • November 5, 1918: Mid-Term Election: the Republican Party takes control of both houses of Congress two-seat majority in the Senate, and 50 seats majority on the House. In addition, the Republicans win many governorships and state legislatures.
  • November 11, 1918: “Allied and German military leaders implement an armistice. The new German government issues an appeal to President Wilson to negotiate peace along the lines he enumerated in his Fourteen Points speech.”
  • November 18, 1918: “Wilson announces he will attend the Paris Peace Conference.”
  • November 21, 1918: “President Wilson signs the Wartime Prohibition Act, banning the manufacture of alcohol for domestic sale effective from June 30, 1919, until demobilization.”
  • January 1919: Theodore Roosevelt dies; some Republicans hoped to nominate for the former President for a third term in 1920.
  • January 18, 1919: “The Paris Peace Conference opens, two weeks after President Wilson receives glowing welcomes in Rome and Paris.”
  • January 29, 1919: “The State Department announces the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution as of January 16, 1919, when Nebraska’s approval achieved the amendment’s required three-fourths majority. A nation-wide ban on the sale, distribution, or production of alcoholic beverages will go into effect on January 16, 1920.”
  • February 14, 1919: President Wilson presents his draft for the League of Nations covenant to the Paris Peace Conference.
  • May 19, 1919: “Congress adopts the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving women the franchise. The joint resolution reads: “The right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.””
  • July 10, 1919: “After failing to secure a peace without rancorous provisions from his fellow Allied leaders, President Wilson submits the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations to the Senate for ratification. Senatorial deliberation on the treaty will last longer than the Paris Conference itself.”
  • August 31, 1919: “The Communist Labor Party of America is founded in Chicago and adopts the platform of the Third International as its own.”
  • September 4, 1919: President Wilson embarks on a country-wide speaking tour to gain support for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. Although Wilson’s doctor’s advise against such a strenuous trip.
  • October 2, 1919: “President Wilson suffers a serious stroke in Wichita, Kansas, in the middle of his national speaking tour and returns to Washington, DC.”
  • October 28, 1919: “Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Wilson’s veto to provide enforcement power to the Eighteenth Amendment.”
  • November 19, 1919: “After a lengthy national debate, the Treaty of Versailles fails to achieve ratification in the Senate by a vote of 53 to 38.”
  • January 10, 1920: League of Nations convenes.
  • February 1, 1920: Ohio governor James M. Cox announces his candidacy.
  • 1920: New Congress moves quickly to approve a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote.
  • February 26, 1920: Herbert Hoover announces he is not a candidate for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • March 1, 1920: A. Mitchell Palmer formally announces his candidacy, and runs in the Georgia primary.
  • March 6, 1920: “Hoover declines to compete in the California Democrat primary.”
  • March 9, 1920: Gen. Leonard Wood and Herbert Hoover win the New Hampshire primaries. General Leonard Wood seeks the Republican nomination after Theodore Roosevelt’s death; his hard-line positions alienate many.
  • March 14, 1920: Eugene V. Debs announces he will accept the Socialist Party presidential nomination.
  • March 15, 1920: Leonard Wood wins Minnesota primary beating both Harding and Hoover.
  • March 16, 1920: “Senator Hiram Johnson is unopposed in North Dakota primary.”
  • March 17, 1920: “Illinois Gov. Frank O. Lowden wins nomination of the Virginia Republican convention.”
  • March 19, 1920: U. S. Senate again rejects Treaty of Versailles 49-35 (with reservations added by Foreign Relations Committee chairman Henry Cabot Lodge).
  • March 23, 1920: South Dakota primary, Leonard Wood wins.
  • March 25, 1920: “Woodrow Wilson tells Grayson, if drafted he would accept the Democratic Presidential nomination.”
  • March 26, 1920:  New York World accuses the Wood campaign of spending too much.
  • March 30, 1920: “Herbert Hoover wires the California Hoover Club that he will accept the GOP nomination under certain conditions.”
  • April 6, 1920: Wisconsin primary, Senator Robert La Follette wins; New York State GOP Primary, unpledged delegates; “Herbert Hoover fails to register in California for the primary.”
  • April 7, 1920: Michigan Democratic primary, Hoover wins; Palmer finishes last.
    Johnson wins Michigan Republican primary.
  • April 14, 1920: First time Wilson presides over his Cabinet since his stroke in 1919.
  • Hiram Johnson’s prospects are limited because the “Old Guard” blames him for defecting in 1912 to become Roosevelt’s Progressive Party running mate, and for undermining Charles Hughes in California, which Wilson won so narrowly in 1916.
  • Woodrow Wilson’s health problems deter him from a presumed third term run. He wants the election to be a “solemn referendum” on the League of Nations and hopes the convention would draft him.
  • Apr 13, 1920: Socialist Party Primaries, Eugene Victor Debs wins.
  • April 20, 1920: Senators Hiram Johnson and Gilbert Hitchcock win Nebraska
    primaries.
  • April 21, 1920: Anti-Masonic Party Nomination James Edward Ferguson
  • April 22, 1920: Illinois and Wisconsin primaries. Frank O. Lowden wins Illinois primary.
  • April 23, 1920: Johnson wins Montana primary over Hoover and Harding.
  • April 27, 1920: Unpledged delegates win Massachusetts GOP primary.
  • April 27, 1920:  “Wood narrowly defeats Johnson in New Jersey primary.” Governor Edward Edwards is unopposed in Democratic primary.
  • April 27, 1920: Ohio primary: “Senator Warren G. Harding narrowly defeats Leonard Wood. Harry M. Daugherty loses as delegate. James M. Cox unopposed in Democratic primary.”
  • May 3, 1920: Maryland primary, Leonard Wood defeats Hiram Johnson.
  • May 4, 1920: California primary, Hiram Johnson defeats Herbert Hoover.
  • May 5, 1920: Wood wins Indiana primary. Harding finishes fourth.
  • May 10, 1920: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates William Wesley Cox
  • May 14, 1920: Socialist Party Convention nominates Eugene Victor Debs, aligns with Lenin’s Third International.
  • May 14, 1920: “Harding delivers “normalcy” speech in Boston.”
  • May 18, 1920: “Governor Sproul delegates win GOP Pennsylvania primary.”
  • May 19, 1920: “Leonard Wood wins non-binding Vermont primary.”
  • May 20, 1920: “Senate authorizes investigate on campaign finances.”
  • May 20, 1920: “Congress passes a joint resolution declaring an end to the war with Germany. President Wilson vetoes the resolution. (Congress ends state of war by joint resolution (vetoed by Woodrow Wilson).)
  • May 21, 1920: Oregon primary, “Hiram Johnson defeats Wood”.
  • May 24, 1920: West Virginia primary, “Sen. Howard Sutherland defeats Gen. Leonard Wood.”
  • May 30, 1920: (“New York Labor Party (Farmer-Labor Party) nominates Rose
    Schneiderman for United States Senate and Mrs. William J. Fink for Comptroller.”)
  • June 5, 1920: “Literary Digest poll puts Warren G. Harding eighth among Republican presidential candidates, below even Calvin Coolidge and William Howard Taft.” Late in the campaign, the Literary Digest magazine mailed millions of postcards to conduct the first Presidential campaign poll and predicts a Republican triumph.
  • June 8-12, 1920: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago Illinois and nominates on 10th ballot Warren G. Harding (Ohio) for President, and nominates Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts) for Vice President. On the first day, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge delivers keynote address. Wood, Lowden, and Johnson are deadlocked at the convention. Party leaders spend all night in the “smoke-filled room” seeking a compromise.  Harding’s campaign manager, Harry Daugherty convinces party leaders to support Harding, who “looked like a President.” The delegates nominate Harding the next day on the 10th ballot. Harding is considered mediocre, a “puppet candidate”; “party hack.” Delegates rebel against the bosses and Harding’s Vice Presidential choice  Senator Irvine Lenroot of Wisconsin. Instead, they nominate Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge.
  • June 12, 1920: Warren Harding gives an address accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination.
  • Republican Party conceals Harding’s “weakness for women.” Senator Boies Penrose, a Harding supporter, said: “No worries about that! We’ll just throw a halo around his handsome head and everything will be all right.”
  • June 18, 1920: “McAdoo announces “irrevocable” decision not to seek presidency.”
  • July 22, 1920: Warren G. Harding is notified of Republican Presidential nomination in Marion, Ohio.
  • July 27, 1920: Calvin Coolidge is notified of Republican Vice Presidential nomination in Northampton, Massachusetts.
  • June 28-July 6, 1920: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California. Joseph T. Robinson (Arkansas) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 43rd ballot, James M. Cox (Ohio) for President, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York) for Vice President. There are twenty-four candidates vying for the nomination on the first ballot. William Gibbs McAdoo is the front-runner, however, Wilson prevents his nomination, and refuses to endorse any candidate, hoping to be drafted when the convention deadlocks. Instead, the Democrats nominate Governor James M. Cox, a newspaper editor and for Vice President nominate 38 year-old Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin of the late Theodore Roosevelt.
  • July 1, 1920: End Democratic Party Primaries, Unpledged
  • July 1, 1920: End Republican Party Primaries, Hiram W. Johnson wins the majority of the primaries.
  • July 10-14, 1920: July 13, 1920: Single Tax Party Convention convenes at  the Auditorium Hotel in Chicago, Illinois and nominates Robert Colvin Macauley Jr. for President.
  • July 15, 1920: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates Parley Parker Christensen for President.
  • July 22, 1920: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Aaron S. Watkins. The single-issue party is less relevant since the Eighteenth Amendment imposing Prohibition had been ratified.
  • August 8, 1920: Cox is officially notified of the Democratic Presidential nomination; “Cox refuses FDR’s request to sit in on cabinet.
  • August 9, 1920: Franklin D. Roosevelt is officially notified of the Democratic Vice Presidential nomination at Hyde Park.
  • August 20, 1920: The Harding campaign announces Lillian Russell will campaign for the Republican ticket, shows a support of women’s rights, in the first Presidential election, where women are universally allowed to vote.
  • Harding’s front porch campaign in Marion, Ohio, received widespread coverage in the newspapers; otherwise Harding did very little campaigning/stumping, gave some ghostwritten speeches.
  • August 26, 1920: The Nineteenth Amendment officially becomes law, grants women the right to vote.
  • August 28, 1920: “In a speech given from his front porch in Marion, Ohio, Harding denounces the League of Nations.” Republicans divided about the League of Nations, Harding, ambiguously, supports an “association of nations.”
  • September 7, 1920: Warren Harding begins first campaign tour.
  • September 8, 1920: Harding addresses 40,000 people at Minnesota State Fair.
  • Both Democratic candidates Cox and Roosevelt stump. Cox travels 22,000 miles, addressed two million people, emphasizing his support for Wilson’s League and disgust at Republican fundraising.
  • October 7, 1920: “Harding speaking in Des Moines calls not for “interpretation but rejection” of the league.”
  • October 28, 1920: “Calvin Coolidge campaigns in Manhattan; Grace Coolidge leads a torchlight parade in Boston.”
  • October 1920: A week before Election Day 250,000 copies of “An Open Letter to the Men and Women of America” by W. E. Chancellor is distributed spreading rumors that Harding was “a West Indian Negro of French stock.” Newspapers kill the story, which is spreading via word of mouth
  • October 31, 1920: “HARDING IGNORES ‘WHISPER’ CAMPAIGN; Will Not Authorize His Aids to Take Any Public Notice of the Stories. ADVISERS’ VIEWS DIFFER Nominee Is Said to Have Resented Published Defenses of Himself as Unnecessary. Senator Harding will not authorize his headquarters to take public notice of the “whispering campaign.”” (NYT)
  • November 2, 1920, Election Day, Republicans Warren G. Harding is elected President, and Calvin Coolidge is elected Vice President
  • January 10, 1921: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

1924

 

  • 1921: Vermont Primary laws are repealed
  • November 1922: Mid-Term Elections: Republicans lose 78 congressional seats in the midterm election
  • 1923: Montana repeals their primary laws
  • Teapot Dome scandals; secretly leasing oil reserves for bribes Teapot Dome Scandal: Senate hearings revealed that William Gibbs McAdoo, -was put on retainer by Edward Doheny, oilman involved in the Teapot Dome scandal. McAdoo not involved in the diversion of federal oil reserves, nevertheless tarnished.
  • August 2, 1923: President Warren Harding dies of a heart attack.
  • August 3, 1923: Vice President Calvin Coolidge succeeds to the Presidency.  “At a 2:30 a.m. ceremony in Plymouth, Vermont, Calvin Coolidge is sworn in by his father as the thirtieth President of the United States.”
  • 1923: Alfred Smith chooses not to run in the primaries
  • December 1, 1923: There will be just a little more than the Republican nomination for the Presidency at stake when the supporters of Hiram Johnson and Calvin Coolidge go to the Oregon Republican primaries next April.
  • 1924: Alabama presidential primary law of 1924 (empowering Senator Oscar W. Underwood, Alabama’s favorite son, to name his own delegates)
  • February 1, 1924: People’s Progressive Convention results in no nominee.
  • February 9, 1924: Commonwealth Land Party Convention nominates William J. Wallace for President.
  • March 4, 1924: Calvin Coolidge unanimously wins the Iowa caucus.
  • March 18, 1924: The House passes the Soldiers’ Bonus Bill.  (“Providing twenty-year annuities for veterans at an overall cost of $2 billion, the bill is passed by the House. One month later, the Senate also passes the bill only to have Coolidge veto it; Congress will later override the veto.”)
  • May 13, 1924: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Frank T. Johns for President.
  • June 4, 1924: American Convention nominates Gilbert Owen Nations for President.
  • June 6, 1924: Prohibition Convention nominates Herman Preston Faris for President.
  • June 10-12, 1924: Republican National Convention convenes at the Public Auditorium in Cleveland, Ohio and nominates on the 1st ballot Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts) for President, and Charles G. Dawes (Illinois) for Vice President. Most boring Republican convention in history with low attendance; Charles Dawes is nominated for vice-president over Herbert Hoover
  • June 12, 1920: “The refusal of thirty-four La Follette delegates from Wisconsin and North Dakota to make the nomination of President Calvin Coolidge unanimous was perhaps the outstanding feature of the morning session of the Republican Convention.”
  • June 19, 1924: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President.
  • July 1, 1924: End Democratic Primaries William Gibbs McAdoo only major Democratic contender in the primaries; wins enough delegates to be the frontrunner at the convention.
  • July 1, 1924: End Republican Primaries Calvin Coolidge wins 15 primaries to Hiram Johnson’s one in South Dakota. Coolidge even wins Johnson’s home state of California
  • July 4, 1924: Progressive Party Convention convenes in Cleveland and nominates Wisconsin’s Progressive Republican Senator Robert M. La Follette (“Fighting Bob”) for President, and Democratic Senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana for Vice President. The Progressives hope to serve as a spoiler, prevent a majority, and throw the election to the House of Representatives, then win as a compromise. 1200 delegates and 9000 spectators (farmers, workers, craftsmen, preachers, professors, housewives, small businessmen) attend.
  • July 8, 1924: Socialist Party Convention nominates Robert Marion La Follette for President.
  • July 9, 1924: Greenback Convention nominates John Zahnd for President.
  • July 11, 1924: Wk Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President.
  • June 24-July 9, 1924: Democratic National Convention convenes at Madison Square Garden, New York. Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 103rd ballot John W. Davis (New York) for President, and Charles W. Bryan (Nebraska) for Vice President. Longest Presidential party convention in history lasts 16 days, convenes on June 24th and adjourned on July 9th. The front runners are William Gibbs McAdoo and Alfred Smith deadlock at the convention; “McAdoo Oil” vs. “Smith Beer”. Rural v. urban clash: Alfred E. Smith of New York, opposes Prohibition and the Klu Klux Klan; William Gibbs McAdoo of California, supports Prohibition and tolerates  the Ku Klux Klan. There are sixteen candidates on the ballot. William Jennings Bryan opposes John W. Davis for the nomination
  • June 24-July 9, 1924: Democratic National Convention deadlocks for nine days. McAdoo and Smith withdraw after the 99th ballot. The compromise candidate John W. Davis is nominated on the 103rd ballot. Charles W. Bryan, William Jennings Bryan’s brother and governor of Nebraska is chosen as the Vice Presidential candidate. There is an intense battle over the platform; need national referendum to decide entry to the League of Nations; affirm importance of religious liberties; motion to condemn the (anti-Catholic, racist) Ku Klux Klan in the platform is blocked.
  • August 30, 1924: “The Dawes Plan is signed by the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Belgium to solve the German reparations problem and to end the occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgium troops.” (“Overseen by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, the plan was drawn up by Coolidge’s running-mate, Charles G. Dawes, and based the reparations schedule on what Germany could pay rather than on what she could be forced to pay. For his part, Dawes would win the Nobel Peace Prize the following year.”)
  • September 18, 1924: “The last U.S. Marines, first sent to Santo Domingo in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson, withdraw from the Dominican Republic, finalizing a process begun three years earlier by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. During this period, the United States helped the country prepare for free elections and, ultimately, independence. The withdrawal reversed decades of U.S. involvement in the Dominican Republic under the auspices of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.”
  • October 4, 1924: Republican Presidential campaign commences in Ohio, Hughes gives an address and gives his position on all the issues of the campaign. “HUGHES ANSWERS CRITICS OF PARTY; Says Character of Coolidge Confounds Those Who Assail Republican Honesty.” (NYT)
  • Coolidge visits a reservation and poses in Indian regalia; Will Rogers wires him: “Politics makes strange red-fellows.”
  • November 4, 1924: Election Day; Calvin Coolidge is elected President, and Charles G. Dawes is elected Vice President. La Follette’s appeal in the Midwest and West attracts votes primarily from the already crippled Democratic ticket.
  • November 9, 1924: “COOLIDGE DICTATED CAMPAIGN POLICIES; Public Was Never Aware of Advisory Publicity Board Which He Directed. Republican campaign workers who know “the inside story” of the campaign strategy which elected President Coolidge by such a decisive vote are hailing the President as one of the master political strategists of American history. They say that he has emerged from the campaign as a much bigger figure in the public eye than before he had won the Presidency in his own name.” (NYT)
  • January 12, 1925: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 


1928

  • May 10, 1926: “The U.S. Marines land in Nicaragua to quiet a revolt. America military forces will maintain a presence in Nicaragua until 1933.”
  • December 28, 1926: HENRY BRECKENRIDGE writes in the New York Times “GOV. SMITH’S AVAILABILITY.; His Catholic, Tammany and Wet Affiliations Are Discussed.”
  • January 1, 1927: In his gubernatorial inaugural address New York Governor Al Smith essentially announces his intention to run for the Presidency in 1928.
  • August 2, 1927: Concerned that four more years in office might appear to some observers as a third term as President, Coolidge ends any talk of his candidacy for the 1928 election stating, “I do not choose to run.”  “I do not choose to run for President in 1928.” Calvin Coolidge, although still a popular President, whose re-election was likely announces he will not run for another term.
  • May 14, 1927: New York Times “PRINTS SMITH’S ANSWER.; Vatican Organ Publishes Article on Church and State Letter.”
  • 1927: Democrat William Gibbs McAdoo announces he will not seek the nomination “in the interest of party unity”; to avoid a rematch of the ballot battle between McAdoo and Alfred Smith; Alfred Smith becomes the frontrunner
  • January 18, 1928: U. S. Congressional Record, 70th Cong., 1st Sess., Tom Heflin’s “tar and feather” speech.
  • January 23, 1928:? Arkansas’ Senator Robinson complains that for “a dozen times,” Heflin gives “anti-Catholic speech” to the Senate.
  • March 30, 1928: Senator Frank Willis of Ohio announces his candidacy for the nomination as well, but his campaign was cut short when he dies
  • The Prohibition Party in California even listed Hoover as its Presidential nominee.
  • Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover wanted to run for the Republican nomination feared that Coolidge might still run or be drafted at the convention.
  • April 16, 1928: “Dr. S.E. Nicholson, Associate State Superintendent and National Secretary of the Anti-Saloon League address on “Shall the Churches Drop the Anti-Saloon League?” at the Throop Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn,” “concedes that Governor Smith “will be the probable choice, of the Houston convention,”” the dry’s will ensure if Smith would not win the election if he is nominated.
  • April 17, 1928: Socialist Party Convention nominates Norman Mattoon Thomas for President.
  • May 22, 1928: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Verne L. Reynolds for President.
  • May 26, 1928: Workers Party Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President
  • July 1, 1928: End Democratic Primaries Alfred E. Smith Hoover has his name on the ballots of 8 primaries.
  • July 1, 1928: End Republican Primaries Herbert Clark Hoover Smith has his name on the ballots of 7 primaries. Hoover wins almost half the contests and amasses 400, 77% delegates going into the convention.  Hoover is the first Quaker to be nominated for President by a major party.
  • June 12-15, 1928: Republican National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri and nominates on the 1st ballot Herbert C. Hoover (California) for President, Charles Curtis (Kansas) for Vice President. Frank Lowden (Former Governor Illinois) withdraws from contention for the Presidential nomination, just prior to the start of the convention, giving Hoover frontrunner status.  The convention considers drafting Charles Dawes in case of deadlock. Coolidge sends a telegram that it would be a “personal affront” to nominate Charles Dawes as Vice President for a second term. Senator Charles Curtis (Kansas) is the first vice-presidential candidate with Indian blood.
  • June 26-29, 1928: Democratic National Convention convenes at Sam Houston Hall in Houston, Texas. Joseph T. Robinson (Arkansas) serves as chairman 1st ballot, Alfred E. Smith (New York), Joseph T. Robinson (Arkansas)  The Democratic Party held its most unified convention since 1916. Al Smith the front-runner, on the first ballot he was 10 votes short of the necessary two thirds majority, until Ohio switched votes. First Roman Catholic nominated for President Senate Minority Leader Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas nominated for Vice President on first ballot
  • July 10-12, 1928: Prohibition Party Convention convenes in Chicago, and  considers endorsing pro-Prohibition Hoover. Convention nominates William Frederick Varney over Hoover by a margin of 68–45 for President.
  • July 18, 1928: John A. McSparran replies to Raskob’s letter and demands John J. Raskob resignation for  Democratic National Chairman, and Governor Alfred E. Smith, Democratic nominee for President.
  • July 24, 1928: John J. Raskob, the new Chairman of the Democratic National Committee resigns in a letter from his position as Chairman of the Finance Committee of the General Motors Corporation after criticism that it is conflicting that he is holding both a business executive position and public political position.
  • Smith conducts a vigorous campaign, less use of radio, whistle-stop tour; Smith tried to woo the business vote to the Democrats, support for protective tariffs, wealthy business men on his staff, picks millionaire John J. Raskob, in the councils of General Motors and du Pont as his campaign manager, however, Raskob was a wet and a Catholic
  • August 2, 1928: “Dr. S.E. Nicholson, Associate Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League sends open letter to Governor Smith. Smith’s prohibition position put in the ire of the Anti-Saloon League, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, militant dry groups, called “Al-coholic”” (NYT)
  • August 11, 1928: Hoover gives his acceptance address; “In this land, dedicated to tolerance, we still find outbreaks of intolerance. I come of Quaker stock. My ancestors were persecuted for their beliefs. Here they sought and found religious freedom. By blood and conviction I stand for religious tolerance both in act and in spirit. The glory of our American ideals is the right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.”
  • August 27, 1928: “The Kellogg-Briand Pact, or the Pact of Paris, as it was also known, is signed by the United States and fifteen other nations. Named for its two principal authors, Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand, the pact outlaws war as a means to settle disputes, substituting diplomacy and world opinion for armed conflict. Ultimately signed by 62 nations, the pact is more symbolic than practical, though Kellogg would win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts the following year.
  • August 22, 1928: Al Smith gives an address accepting the Democratic Presidential nomination at the State Capitol, Albany, New York.
  • September 6, 1928: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates Frank E. Webb for President.
  • October 1, 1928: Anti-Masonic Home Progressive Party Convention results in no nominee.
  • September 7, 1928: The newly formed Ohio conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church today unanimously adopted a resolution endorsing the candidacy of Herbert Hoover, Republican nominee for President.
  • Hoover uses radio addresses, statesman addresses to the nation; Hoover campaigns on the “American system” of free enterprise as the key to continued prosperity; as if he was above politics.
  • September 29, 1928: Smith gives a speech on religious intolerance in Oklahoma City and is greeted with fiery KKK crosses along the route and hostility in the auditorium. Despite Smith’s insistence on the separation of church and state, his Catholicism is the biggest issue in the whole campaign (Ku Klux Klan claims Pope with taker over the White House; burning crosses; anti-Catholic rallies); Smith’s Anti-Prohibitionism, association with the perceived corrupt Tammany Hall made him unpopular in the mid-West among farmers.
  • September 30, 1928: Next evening popular evangelist John Roach Straton gives a speech on “Al Smith and the Forces of Hell.”
  • Oct. 3, 1928: Al Smith gives a speech on religious tolerance in Oklahoma’s capital causes controversy. “Democratic Organization Is Now on the Offensive on the Religious Issue” (NYT)
  • October 14, 1928: “PRESENT CAMPAIGN FEATURED BY DISREGARD OF ESSENTIALS; Lack of Outstanding Issue and Excellence of Candidates Have Made Democracy and Obsession the Opponents” (NYT)
  • October 16, 1928: A survey taken in the Midwestern states lean predict a Republican Hoover victory in the Presidential election. The race however with Democratic candidate Smith is close, 14 states are undecided and 5 states lean towards Smith. (“TEMPERS OPTIMISM FOR HOOVER IN WEST; Manager Good at Chicago Says Republicans Will Win, but Only After Fight. HIS AIDES PREDICT SWEEP But Survey Shows 14 States, With, 115 Electoral Votes, Listed as Doubtful. SMITH IS STRONG IN FIVE To These, Contested Throughout Campaign, Illinois is Added by Democratic Spurt There. His Aides See Victory Ahead. Survey of “Doubtful” States. Others Listed for Hoover. Nebraska Rests With Norris. Illinois Claims Are Contested. Smith’s Prospects in Illinois.”)
  • During the campaign, Mississippi Senator Theodore Bilbo recounts Hoover danced with a black member of the Republican National Committee, which helps Hoover with the African American vote.
  • October 1928: Hoover gives an address at Madison Square Garden accusing Smith of advancing policies as Governor of New York that “savored of State socialism.”
  • October 24, 1928: “Henry Morgenthau, former Ambassador to Turkey gives a radio address which is broadcast by WEAF. He assails Herbert Hoover’s attack on Governor Smith as a “Socialist,”” for preventing the Water Power Scandal.” (NYT)
  • October 24, 1928: Al Smith gives an address in Boston, which comments on Hoover’s accusation that his policies are Socialist.
  • October 25, 1928: Herbert Hoover refuses to comments on Smith’s reaction to Hoover’s Socialist comments.
  • October 27, 1928: “Senator George W. Norris delivers in the Municipal Auditorium in Omaha, Nebraska his first speech since he bolted the Republican Presidential candidacy. He calls upon all Progressives to support Governor Smith as the follower of the tradition of Theodore Roosevelt.” (NYT)
  • October 28, 1928: Al Smith campaigns in Maryland. Smith and his family guest at Raskob’s estate in Delaware. A survey in Pennsylvania is leaning towards voting for Smith.
  • November 1, 1928: John J. Raskob, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee charges the Republican Party for spreading and instigating the anti-Catholicism and religious bigotry in the campaign. (“RASKOB CHARGES REPUBLICANS AID ANTI-CATHOLIC WAR; Writes Work and Hoover Party Aides Promote Spreading of ‘Scurrilous Literature.’ SENDS FOUR AFFIDAVITS And Copy of Letter Signed by Moses Asking Publication of ‘Red Hot Stuff.’”) (NYT)
  • November 2, 1928: Hoover gives his last address of the campaign in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • November 5, 1928: Charles Evans Hughes attacks Smith in his last radio address of the campaign from his home at l,020 Fifth Avenue. Hughes claims Smith does not have the experience and knowledge on the issues that affect the majority of Americans; “no foreign, tariff or farm policy.”
  • November 6, 1928: Election Day, Republicans Herbert Hoover is elected President and Charles Curtis is elected Vice President. Voter turnout increases 30% from the 1924 race. Smith’s Catholicism gains him votes in the Republican and Catholic Massachusetts and Rhode Island; immigrant vote; lost votes in the South and West to Hoover because of Catholicism, anti-Prohibition stance; association with Tammany Hall; Hoover also gains African American votes in the South (perceived support for integration).
  • November 19, 1928: President-elect Herbert Hoover begins a seven-week “Good Will Tour” of eleven Latin American countries. President-elect Hoover wants to improve relations with the southern republics and he receives a cordial welcome during his visits. The president-elect returned to the United States on January 6, 1929.
  • January 2, 1929: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitol.
  • February 13, 1929: Joint Session of Congress meets to count the electoral votes.

 


1932

 

  • June 15, 1929: “Hoover signs the Agricultural Marketing Act to revitalize the increasingly poor market for farm products.” (“It represents a marked reversal in federal policy; Coolidge had vetoed a number of similar bills designed to aid farmers during his presidency. The act creates the Federal Farm Board, designed to promote the sale of agricultural products through cooperatives and stabilization corporations. In addition, it provides for the purchase of surplus goods by the federal government to maintain price levels, and a $500,000,000 fund to aid the cooperatives.”)
  • September 3, 1929: “The index of common stock prices reaches an average of 216, more than double what it had been three years earlier. The increase represented the largest bull market the country had ever seen. At the same time, national income statistics indicate that roughly 60 percent of Americans have annual incomes below the poverty line, estimated at $2000.”
  • October 24, 1929: “Black Thursday”: the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) experiences a collapse in stock prices as 13 million shares are sold. Even wealthy investors J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller in an effort to save the market by furiously buying stock, cannot prevent the fall.
  • October 29, 1929: Stock Market Crash: “The New York Stock Market crashes, more money is lost on that day than had ever been printed or minted in American history.” (“Since investors could borrow up to 90% of the price of a stock, much of the loss of stock value was caused by an investor inability to repay the borrowed funds. Securities dropped over $35 billion.”) “”Black Tuesday”: a record 16.4 million shares of stock are traded on the NYSE as large blocks of equities are sold at extremely low prices. The trading continues the sharp downward trend of the previous week. It is an abrupt change from the over-speculation of the previous months.”
  • December 1, 1929: NYSE stocks lose $26 billion in value since October’s crash.
  • February 10, 1930: “A major bootlegging operation in Chicago is shut down with the arrest of 158 people from 31 organizations. Together, these groups were estimated to have distributed more than seven million gallons of whiskey nationwide with an estimated worth of around $50 million.”
  • June 17, 1930:  “Against the urgings of many economists, Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, raising duties prohibitively high on many imports. Rather than solve the economic crash, the act causes other countries to follow America’s lead by raising their tariffs. Such “economic nationalism” exacerbates both the international depression and nationalist tensions.”
  • September 1930: “A bank panic begins as 305 banks across the country close before the month is over. More than 500 will follow in October.”
  • December 2, 1930: “Hoover asks Congress to fund for public works projects in order to stem the growing tide of unemployment. Congress complies weeks later, providing $116 million in jobs for the estimated 4.5 million unemployed.”
  • December 11, 1930: “The Bank of the United States in New York City, with 60 branches and 400,000 depositors, closes. It is merely the largest of the more than 1300 bank closings across the country as the economic depression worsens.”
  • January 7, 1931: “The President’s Emergency Committee reports that the number of unemployed is nearly five million.”
  • February 27, 1931: “Over Hoover’s veto, Congress passes the Bonus Loan Bill. The act allows veterans to obtain cash loans of up to 50 percent of their bonus certificates issued in 1924.”
  • June 20, 1931: “In an effort to ease the worldwide depression, Hoover proposes a one-year moratorium on debt payments owed America in return for Europe returning the favor on U.S. debts. Passed by Congress in December, the policy does little to ameliorate the economic crisis.”
  • September 21, 1931: “Britain goes off the gold standard in an effort to solve the continuing economic crisis. Americans, fearing that the United States will soon do the same, begin to withdraw their money from banks and hoard gold. Over the next month, 827 more banks will close.”
  • December 7, 1931: “In response to the Great Depression, hundreds of “hunger marchers” descend on the nation’s capitol. They are turned away at the White House, however, unsuccessful in their attempt to present a petition to Hoover asking for jobs.”
  • January 22, 1932: “Hoover establishes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, an agency designed to lend money to banks, insurance companies, and other institutions to stimulate the economy. It will have $2 billion at its disposal.”
  • May 29, 1932: Bonus Army incident: “The first of nearly 20,000 veterans arrive in Washington, D.C., setting up camp in open or unused buildings near the capitol. They hope to pressure Congress into granting them the full value of their bonus certificates, which were not to mature until 1944. The “Bonus Army” fails in its objective, however, as they are eventually forced out of the city by U.S. Army troops in late July.”
  • March 15, 1932: New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt officially announces that he is running for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • 1932: Hoover enters the Maryland primary defeating Joseph I. France, essentially ending France’s campaign, especially since few of the primary delegates were the delegates voting at the National Convention.
  • 1932: William Randolph Hearst supports John Nance Garner, and endorses Garner in his chain of newspapers.
  • 1932: Alfred Smith (1928 Democratic nominee) wants to run again; he still maintains the party leaders’ support. Smith defeats Franklin Roosevelt in the Massachusetts primary.
  • July 1, 1932: End Democratic Party Primaries, Franklin Delano Roosevelt wins a majority of the primaries. Franklin Roosevelt places his named on the ballot in eleven primaries, but does not actively campaign; and he does not leave Albany or Hyde Park throughout the primaries. By the convention, Roosevelt has more delegates than his opponents, but not the 2/3rds needed to clinch the nomination.
  • July 1, 1932: End Republican Party Primaries, Joseph Irwin France wins a majority of the primaries. Hoover, however is mostly unopposed for the nomination, except Joseph Irwin France (Former U.S. Senator, Maryland) challenges Hoover in the primaries winning seven out of fourteen primaries as the protest candidate; Irwin wants Coolidge to capture the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • April 27, 1932: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates Jacob S. Coxey for President.
  • May 2, 1932: Social Labor Party Convention nominates Verne L. Reynolds for President.
  • May 4, 1932: National Party Convention nominates John Zahnd for President.
  • May 17, 1932?: Alfred E. Smith gives a radio address over the National Broadcasting Company network.
  • May 24, 1932: Socialist Party Convention nominates Norman Mattoon Thomas for President.
  • May 29, 1932: Communist Party Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President
  • June 14-16, 1932: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium, in Chicago Illinois, and renominates on the 1st ballot Herbert C. Hoover (California) for President, and Charles Curtis (Kansas) for Vice President. Hoover receives 98% of the delegate vote, clinching the nomination on the first ballot. The agricultural Republicans oppose Charles Curtis’ renomination, as did extreme hard money Republicans who supported Coolidge, both factions voted against Curtis. Former U.S. Senator Joseph I. France challenges Hoover for the nomination and wins nine primaries, is removed from the convention, when he tries to convince the delegates to nominate Coolidge.
  • June 16, 1932: Herbert Hoover sends message to the Republican Convention accepting the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • June 27-July 2, 1932: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois. Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) serves as chairman. The Convention nominates on 4th ballot, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York) for President, and John Nance Garner (Texas) for Vice President. Roosevelt leads in the delegate count, but does not have the two-third majority. Roosevelt attempts to get the two-thirds ruled abandoned, but risks losing the South’s support, therefore drops the issue. Roosevelt’s campaign managers (Howe, Farley) make a deal with John Nance Garner to give him the Vice-Presidential nomination in exchange for delegate support of Roosevelt on the 4th ballot. Hearst agrees to the deal, especially since Roosevelt has repudiated the League of Nations in February. Smith breaks with Roosevelt, and refuses to release his delegate so Roosevelt can be unanimously nominated.
  • July 2, 1932: Franklin Roosevelt gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Roosevelt breaks with precedent and flies to Chicago to accept the nomination, at the convention and give an acceptance speech. Roosevelt did to dispel talk of his crippled condition and “show he was a man of action.” In his acceptance speech for the Democratic presidential nomination, Franklin Delano Roosevelt pledges “a new deal for the American people,” marking his first public use of that term.
  • July 7, 1932: Prohibition Party Convention nominates William David Upshaw for President.
  • August 11, 1932: Herbert Hoover gives an address accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination.
  • August 17, 1932: Jobless Party Convention nominates James R. Cox for President
  • August 17, 1932: Liberty Party Convention nominates William Hope “Coin” Harvey for President.
  • August 20, 1932: Roosevelt gives an address in Columbus, Ohio, attacks Hoover’s leadership as President, and the economy. Roosevelt compares “the Hoover administration to Alice’s Wonderland in Through the Looking Glass; Hoover himself is depicted as “Humpty Dumpty.””
  • August-November 1932: “Roosevelt the Robust” outlines his plans for economic recovery to the public in a Whistle-stop tour that covers 13,000 miles sixteen major addresses, devoted to a specific topic/issues, and numerous minor speeches.  Roosevelt gains the support of Progressive Republicans; Robert LaFollette, Jr., of Wisconsin and George Norris of Nebraska, who both endorse him.
  • 1932: Hoover does not plan to campaign, instead he intends to deal with the economic crisis, working in the White House.
  • October 1932: Democrats blame the entire economic collapse on Hoover; “Hoover depression” prompting Hoover to go on stump. Hoover gives 9 major addresses and radio addresses. Hoover was the last president to write his own speeches.
  • Unemployment reaches 23.6%;
  • Hoover defends his policies, claims depression originated because World War I and abroad, not from with the United States, and that his policies “prevented a total collapse” belief in individual initiative and free enterprise.
  • Hoover’s attacks the Democrats in Congress claiming they blocked his efforts, attacks the New Deal, as radical, socialistic and foreign influenced. Hoover insists that there are signs of recovery, but business might fear Roosevelt’s policies, and which would prevent the recovery.
  • September 23, 1932: Franklin Delano Roosevelt gives his Commonwealth Club Address in San Francisco, CA. (Roosevelt wants to respond strongly to Hoover’s charges unAmericanism, but is advised against it.)
  • September 29, 1932: Roosevelt gives a speech in Sioux City, Iowa and attacks Hoover for “driving up the federal deficit.” Roosevelt accuses “the present administration of being the greatest spending Administration in peace times in all our history.”
  • Roosevelt appeared optimistic throughout the campaign.
  • Hoover spreads dread with his attacks and negatively, and appears more shrill towards the end of the campaign;
  • October 14, 1932: Al Smith announces he will campaign for Roosevelt by giving six speeches in 4 states; New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Roosevelt woos Democratic Party regulars, Smith even campaign for Roosevelt, albeit reluctantly.
  • October 14, 1932: John N. Garner gives his only radio address attacking Hoover’s policies, “gold standard remarks and Coolidge’s address.” Vice Presidential candidate Garner did not believe it was not necessary to campaign, a victory is in hand without campaigning.
  • October 19, 1932: Roosevelt gives an address in Pittsburgh, where he attacks Hoover for blaming the economic situation in the United States on the world economy. “We need not look abroad for scapegoats. We had ventured into the economic stratosphere–which is a long way up–on the wings of President Hoover’s novel, radical, and unorthodox theories of 1928, the complete collapse of which brought the real crash in 1931.”
  • October 28-29, 1932: Hoover completes short “whistle stop” campaign tour  through West Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana.
  • October 29, 1932: Hoover addresses a major rally in Indianapolis, and accuses “Roosevelt of spreading falsehoods and calumnies about the country’s economic crisis”
  • October 29, 1932: Roosevelt leads Hoover by a 3-to-2 vote in semi-final returns from The Literary Digest nation-wide Presidential poll.
  • October 31, 1932: Hoover gives an address at Madison Square Garden in New York, where he argues a Roosevelt victory would result in more unemployment.
  • October 31, 1932 Roosevelt addresses an audience of supporters in Boston about unemployment. Roosevelt criticizes the Hoover campaign for abandoning argument for personalities. “The Administration attempts to undermine reason through fear, by telling us the world will come to an end on November 8th if it is not returned to power for four years more. Once more it is leadership that is bankrupt, not only in ideals, but in ideas. It sadly misconceives the good sense and self reliance of our people.”
  • November 4, 1932: Hoover addresses a campaign rally in St. Louis, Missouri. President Hoover “again defended his record and attacked his Democratic rival. His tone was combative as he criticized Roosevelt for having sullied the campaign with misinformation and innuendo. It had been a nasty campaign and Hoover put the blame squarely on Roosevelt.”
  • November 4, 1932: “The Literary Digest’s nation-wide Presidential poll final returns give Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, Democratic nominee for President, a lead over his Republican opponent, President Hoover, in forty one states and, approximately, a 3-to-2 lead in the popular vote.” After 3,064,497 ballots the Literary Digest’s tally show 474 TO 57 Electoral College victory for Roosevelt, and believe Hoover will only carry Vermont and Maine, although some states are still close.
  • November 5, 1932: Herbert Hoover gives an address in St. Paul, Minnesota; he blames Roosevelt and the Democratic Party “for running a mean-spirited campaign.” Hoover again defends himself against charges that he is not an American citizen, and he claims Roosevelt will abolish the Federal Farm board if elected. “Indeed, this is the same philosophy of government which has poisoned all Europe. They have been the fumes of the witch’s cauldron which boiled in Russia and in its attenuated flavor spread over the whole of Europe, and would by many be introduced into the United States in an attempt to secure votes through protest of discontent against emergency conditions.”
  • November 1, 1932: Senator Carter Glass of Virginia gives a speech in Washington over the nation-wide hook-up of the Columbia Broadcasting System on the Hoover Administrations’ financial policies. (NYT)
  • November 2, 1932: Al Smith gives a statewide radio address from New York; that President Hoover, instead of “defending his administration,” was “talking to scare the American people.” Smith ridicules Hoover’s idea that the country would be in peril if the tariff is reduced.
  • November 8, 1932: Election Day; Democrats Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected President, and John Nance Garner is elected Vice President. (Maine held state elections in September)
  • January 4, 1933: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.


1936

 

  • March 5, 1933: “Roosevelt declares a four-day “bank holiday” in order to stop the panic “run” on the nation’s banks.” (“He also summons Congress to a special session on March 9.”)
  • March 9 – June 16, 1933: Roosevelt’s first hundred days in office, Congress passes many of the New Deal’s core programs to relieve the depression. Congress passes the Emergency Bank Act.  New Deal is instituted; Agricultural Adjustment Act; Congress passes legislation to create; the Civil Works Administration; Civilian Conservation Corps; Farm Credit Administration; Home Owners Loan Corporation; Tennessee Valley Authority; Public Works Administration; National Industrial Recovery Act.
  •  “Congress meets beginning what is later known as Roosevelt’s “Hundred Days.” During this period, Congress enacts many of the principal programs of FDR’s “New Deal.” It passes the Emergency Banking Act on March 9, allowing banks to reopen as soon as they can prove they are solvent; within three days, more than 1,000 banks will reopen, helping to raise the nation’s confidence almost overnight.”
  • March 12, 1933: FDR delivers his first “fireside chat” radio address to the nation.
  • April 19, 1933: Roosevelt makes a proclamation and takes United States off the gold standard. (“While the value of the dollar declines internationally, the policy also allows more money to become available to Americans, stimulating the economy.”)
  • May 12, 1933: Congress passes Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) which provides grants for relief programs. Congress also passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which establishes the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) (“restricts the production of certain crops and pays farmers not to till their land”) (Roosevelt hopes that the AAA will reduce agricultural production, raise prices, and aid suffering farmers)
  • June 16, 1933: Hundredth day of Roosevelt’s Administration, Congress passes the National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA). “On this, the final day of FDR’s “Hundred Days,” Congress passes a number of bills. The most important of these is the National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA) the centerpiece of Roosevelt’s efforts to revive American industry. It establishes two of the early key agencies of the New Deal: the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the National Recovery Administration (NRA). The PWA focuses on providing jobs through the construction of roads, public buildings, and other projects, while the NRA’s goal is to stimulate competition to aid both consumers and producers. In addition to the NIRA, Congress passes the Banking Act of 1933, which establishes the Federal Bank Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Farm Credit Act.”
  • November 8, 1933: “FDR, by executive order, establishes the Civil Works Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the CWA hopes to provide work for 4 million unemployed Americans.”
  • January 30, 1934: Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act. “Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act, allowing the President to fix the value of the U.S. dollar at between 50 to 60 cents in terms of gold.”
  • January 31, 1934: “FDR signs the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act, establishing the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, designed to help farmers pay their mortgages by granting them easier terms of credit. Both efforts illustrate the federal government’s increasing control over the nation’s currency.”
  • February 2, 1934: “By executive order, FDR establishes the Export-Import Bank to encourage commerce between the United States and foreign nations, especially Latin America.”
  • April 28, 1934: “FDR signs the Home Owners Loan Act, a bill designed to promote home construction.”
  • May 10-11, 1934: “A severe dust storm hits the central and southern plains, blowing an estimated 300,000,000 tons of topsoil from Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, and Colorado as far east as the Atlantic Ocean. It is only one of a number of such storms ravaging a region which becomes known as “the Dust Bowl.” In large part, the conditions are due to the improper plowing and farming practices used to squeeze yields and profits out of the land during the Depression. Many inhabitants, some of whom are known as “Okies” and “Arkies,” pack up their belongings and move to California.”
  • June 6, 1934: “Roosevelt establishes U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; Federal Housing Administration. FDR signs the Securities Exchange Act, creating the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), which will license stock exchanges and determine the legality of certain speculative market practices. The following day, Congress will pass the Corporate Bankruptcy Act, allowing corporations facing bankruptcy to reorganize if two-thirds of its creditors agree. Efforts at both prevention and prescription, the bills address some of the factors which led to the severity of the Great Depression.”
  • June 28, 1934: Roosevelt signs the Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act and National Housing Act into law. “In his continued efforts to rejuvenate the economy, FDR signs two bills into law. The Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act places a moratorium on all farm mortgage foreclosures; the National Housing Act creates the Federal Housing Administration, designed to further stimulate homebuilding.”
  • July 16, 1934: “Organized labor calls for a “general strike”the first ever in U.S. history after 12,000 members of the International Longshoremen’s Association have already walked out in San Francisco. Numerous strikes will occur across the nation during the summer.”
  • 1934: Senator Huey Long (Louisiana) founds the Share the Wealth society, “Share Our Wealth” program; Long gives ”Share Our Wealth” Speech. Long and Share Our Wealth Society organize clubs cross-country. There is a momentum towards a third party, and fear Long is intending to run for President. Roosevelt veers his policies, leftward to make Long’s program and subsequent party seem irrelevant
  • November 6, 1934: Mid-Term elections: Democrats win ten more seats in the Senate and nine seats in the House. (“In midterm elections, the Democrats gain spots in both the House and the Senate, picking up nine seats in each body. The gains serve as a public endorsement of FDR’s New Deal programs.”)
  • April 8, 1935: Congress passes the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act. (“The bill authorizes nearly $5 billion to establish federal programs in line with FDR’s goals. The first of these, the Resettlement Administration (RA), will be created less than a month later and will help rural and some urban families relocate to more productive regions of the country.”)
  • May 6, 1935: Roosevelt establishes the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act through an Executive order. (“With funds from the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, FDR issues an executive order establishing the Works Progress Administration (WPA).”)
  • May 11, 1935: “FDR establishes the Rural Electrification Administration to provide loans for the construction of power plants and lines to those regions that private companies deemed unprofitable.” (“Public utilities will come under federal regulation following the passage of the Public Utilities Act in August.”)
  • May 27, 1935: The Supreme Court rules in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States that the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 is unconstitutional. “The NIRA, officially terminates at the end of the year.”
  • July 5, 1935: Roosevelt signs the National Labor Relations Act, creating the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). (“The NLRB ensures the right of labor to organize and bargain collectively.”)
  • August 14, 1935: FDR signs the Social Security Act. (“establishes the Social Security Board (SSB), one of the most far-reaching pieces of legislation in the country’s history. The act guarantees pensions to Americans over the age of 65, establishes a system of unemployment insurance, and assists states in aiding dependent children, the blind, and the aged who do not already qualify for Social Security.”)
  • August 30, 1935: Congress passes the Revenue Act, “increasing taxes on inheritances and gifts, as well as on higher incomes and corporations.”
  • August 31, 1935: FDR signs the Neutrality Act into law, “forbidding the shipment of arms and munitions to belligerents during a state of war.”
  • September 8, 1935: Senator Huey Long is assassinated in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • November 9, 1935: John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, becomes chairman of the newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization within the American Federation of Labor (AFL). “Illustrating the growing divide within organized labor, John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, becomes chairman of the newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization within the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Within two years, this faction will be expelled, changing its name to the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) after mounting continued challenges to the AFL’s more conservative leadership and goals.”
  • 1935: North Dakota primary law is repealed.
  • January 6, 1936: The Supreme Court rules in U.S. v. Butler that Agricultural Adjustment Act is unconstitutional. (In U.S. v. Butler, the Supreme Court rules the Agricultural Adjustment Act to be unconstitutional. The dissenting justices accuse the majority of ruling on personal belief since the AAA enjoyed wide public support. Within two months, Congress will pass the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, providing services similar to that of the AAA through slightly different means.)
  • January 24, 1936: Despite Roosevelt’s veto, Congress passes the Adjusted Compensation Act after ten years of negotiations. “Ending a more than decade-long battle, Congress passes the Adjusted Compensation Act over Roosevelt’s veto. The bill provides immediate cash redemption of the bonus certificates first issued to veterans in 1924. The certificates were due to mature in 1944 but, due to the recent economic downturn dubbed the “Roosevelt Recession”Congress finally gathered enough support to override FDR’s veto.”
  • 1936: Republican Senator from Idaho William Borah, who is popular in the polls, collects double the primary votes than any of the Republican hopefuls. Borah is a  progressive and “insurgent,” running to defend “liberal principles.” Old Guard/Party machinery and big business oppose his nomination.
  • 1936: Democrat Henry S. Breckinridge (New York) is anti-New Deal lawyer was Roosevelt’s only opponent in the primaries. He runs in 4 primaries, and loses by large margins, except in New Jersey.
  • 1936: New Jersey Primary, Roosevelt does not file for the preference vote, Roosevelt garners 19% in write-ins, and his delegate choices won
  • 1936: Maryland Primary, Breckinridge’s best result at 15%
  • April 6, 1936: National Greenback Convention nominates John Zahnd for President
  • April 28, 1936: Social Labor Party Convention nominates John W. Aiken for President.
  • May 7, 1936: Prohibition Party Convention nominates David Leigh Colvin for President.
  • May 26, 1936: Socialist Party Convention nominates Norman Mattoon Thomas for President.
  • June 1, 1936: Christian Party Nomination nominates William Dudley Pelley for President.
  • June 9-12, 1936: Republican National Convention convenes at the Public Auditorium in Cleveland, Ohio and nominates on the 1st ballot, Alfred M. Landon (Kansas) for President, and Frank Knox (Illinois) for Vice President. At the convention Kansas Governor Alfred Landon, the only Republican state executive reelected in 1934, gains so much delegate support, prompting primary winner William Borah to withdraw prior to the roll call. Knox also withdraws and becomes Landon’s choice for Vice President. Day, Green, and Warren also release their delegates. Landon does not attend the convention, instead sends a telegram with his thoughts and positions on the issues for his acceptance of the nomination
  • June 19, 1936: Union Party National Convention nominates William Lemke for President. Radio priest Father Charles Coughlin continues Huey Long’s plan and forms the Union Party, that was more to the left than the Democrats, and nominates North Dakota Congressman William Lemke for President.
  • June 27, 1936: “In Chicago D. Leigh Colvin, the Prohibition party’s candidate for President, declares today that he will attack Governor Landon as well as President Roosevelt during the Fall campaign.”
  • June 23-27, 1936: Democratic National Convention convenes at Convention Hall, in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Joseph T. Robinson (Arkansas) serves as chairman. The convention renominates by acclamation, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York) for President, and John Nance Garner (Texas) for Vice President. Roosevelt controls the convention and repeals two-thirds rule (which had been introduced originally to give the South veto power). There is a self-tribute organized with fifty-six seconding speeches by forty-nine men and eight women for Roosevelt.
  • June 28, 1936: Communist Party Convention nominates Earl Russell Browder for President
  • July 12, 1936: Farm Labor Party Convention convenes, no nominee results.
  • August 7, 1936: Rev. Gerald L.K. Smith gives a speech at the National Press Club for Lemke’s campaigns. Smith attacks Republican and Democratic opponents,; he calls the Republicans stupid, and Roosevelt aiding Communism, by deceiving Americans into having a Communist government.  Also charges that the New Deal persecuted Senator Long’s followers. (NYT)
  • August 14, 1936: Roosevelt is termed an ally of C.I.O. “William Hutcheson, president of the International Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners and labor director of the Landon campaign, asserted yesterday that President Roosevelt was linked to the forces of John L. Lewis that are seeking industrial organization of workers.” (NYT)
  • August 15, 1936: National Union for Social Justice, an organization run by Father Charles Coughlin in Royal Oak, Michigan endorses William Lemke for President.
  • Roosevelt wants the campaign to focus on him and his policies, he labels his opponents “economic royalists” and claims Republicans think “that government is best which is most indifferent to mankind.”
  • September 3, 1936: President Roosevelt and Governor Landon meet in Des Moines, Iowa shake hands and “exchange pleasantries” prior to a lunch and conference on drought relief that 12 other governors attend.
  • September-November, 1936: The presidential campaigns heats up, with Roosevelt being criticized from multiple sides for his New Deal policies. Nearly 80 percent of American newspapers endorse the Republican candidate Alf Landon, with many predicting a heavy defeat for the incumbent.
  • September 3, 1936: Republican candidate Landon’s lead widens over Roosevelt in rural areas “in the “grass roots” poll being conducted by some 3,000 country newspapers in cooperation with the Publishers Autocaster Service and the American Press.” In the poll’s second installment is 126,559 to 72,273 in Landon’s favor, and 10,161 for Lemke. (NYT)
  • Huge crowds rally whenever, Roosevelt makes appearance or gives a speech. In Chicago five miles of supporters line up, and 100,000 attended in the stadium for his speech.
  • Landon attacks the increase of government agencies and the New Deal as “unjust, unworkable, stupidly drafted, and wastefully financed.”
  • September 6, 1936: Republican candidate Landon makes a speech in Wichita, Kansas
  • September 8, 1936: “Landon says he took 17 votes from Roosevelt in Massachusetts.” (“Representative William Lemke, Union Party candidate for President, laid claim today to the seventeen electoral Votes of Massachusetts after his appearance at a Labor Day rally sponsored by former Mayor William Hale (Big Bill) Thompson of Chicago.”) (NYT)
  • September 11, 1936: Landon addresses Young Republicans of Nation in Topeka, Kansas.
  • September 21, 22, 1936:? Governor Landon speaks in Des Moines to present full drought program.
  • October 1936: Landon gains momentum
  • October 7, 1936: “In more direct criticism of his opponent than has been his custom, Governor Landon declares today that President Roosevelt is wrong in asserting in his recent speech at Pittsburgh that the $1,500,000,000 paid to World War veterans as a bonus was no longer a future obligation of the government.” (NYT)
  • October 9, 1936: President and Governor Landon attend their drought-relief conference in the capital Des Moines, Iowa and as Senator Capper of Kansas claims, “harmony dripped so steadily from every rafter that I fully expected one of the candidates to withdraw.” Iowa is swinging in Roosevelt’s favor because of economic improvements in the capital and countryside.
  • October 10, 1936: Roosevelt gives an address in Omaha.
  • October 11, 1936: “In Chicago, the Republican National Committee issues in the evening attacking Roosevelt’s budget views, claim he will not cut costs, “thanking President Roosevelt for proving in his Omaha speech last night one of the main points which Governor Landon made at Chicago Friday night — that spenders can’t be trusted to balance the budget.”” (LANDON CHARGE ‘PROVED’ Statement Says Elimination of Waste Will Mean Big Saving Despite Relief Needs.) (NYT)
  • October 10, 1936: “For the fifth consecutive week President Roosevelt continues to make gains in the Literary Digest Presidential straw vote. In the sixth installment of the Digest, the lead of Governor Landon, Republican Presidential nominee, has been decreased to somewhat less than 3 to 2.” (NYT)
  • October 19, 1936: Representatives for President Roosevelt, Governor Landon and Norman Thomas present their foreign policies. (NYT)
  • The Hearst papers accuse Roosevelt of being surrounded by a “Communist entourage”
  • The Chicago Tribune claims “Moscow Orders Reds in U.S. To Back Roosevelt”;  charges communism would take over if Roosevelt won
  • October 25, 1936: Politicians invade the radio. Roosevelt and Landon at Big Rallies. RADIO listeners are warned that the air this week will be saturated with politics. President Roosevelt is scheduled for two broadcasts and Governor Landon for four, between now and next Sunday.
  • October 28, 1936: “300,000 line 30-mile route through three boroughs to see President Roosevelt and welcome the President to New York City as he began the last week of his campaign for re-election.” (NYT)
  • October 28, 1936: President Roosevelt and Governor Landon both campaign in New York
  • October 30, 1936: “Landon has a lead of 4-3 in last Digest Poll. Final Tabulation Gives Him 370 Electoral Votes to 161 for President Roosevelt. According to the Liberty Digest poll Governor Landon will win the election by an electoral vote of 370 to 161, will carry thirty-two of the forty-eight States, and will lead President Roosevelt about four to three in their share of the popular vote.” (NYT)
  • October 31, 1936: Franklin Roosevelt, Madison Square Garden Speech
  • October 31,1936: The Literary Digest (leading national magazine) had predicted correctly every presidential election since 1920. Their survey claimed a Landon victory with an Electoral College vote of 370 – 161. (This mistake by the Literary Digest proved to be devastating to the magazine’s credibility, and in fact the magazine went out of existence within a few months of the election.)
  • October, November 1936: In the last days the Republicans use scare tactics to deter voters from Roosevelt, about Social Security Act, that was going into affect January 1, 1937 would steal money from people’s pay checks, their message appeared in factory bulletins, slip with employees pay slips
  • November 2, 1936: In an election eve, wind-up tour of Westchester, White Plains, New York, Governor Lehman denounces ‘Un-American’ Foes’ assails the Republican “pay envelope” campaign tonight as a “malicious, selfish and un-American scheme” to frighten the workers of the State and nation. He characterized the Republican tactics as a “monstrosity.”
  • November 3, 1936: Election Day; Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected President and John Nance Garner is reelected Vice President. Roosevelt successfully attracts Ethnic-Catholic and African-American to the Democrats
  • December 14, 1936: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 

 
1940

 

  • April 12, 1937: Supreme Court rules the National Labor Relations Act to be constitutional, by 5-4 majority.
  • May 1, 1937: FDR signs the third Neutrality Act, “the cash-and-carry law”
  • July 22, 1937: Congress passes the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act, establishing the Farm Securities Administration (FSA).
  • September 2, 1937: Congress passes the National Housing Act, which creates the U.S. Housing Authority.
  • December 11, 1937: (“International relations continue to sour as Italy withdraws from the League of Nations following criticism of its actions toward Ethiopia. The following day, the Japanese Air Force attacks the U.S. gunboat Panay in China’s Yangtze River. FDR had earlier declared American neutrality in the ongoing conflict between China and Japan. Japan apologizes for the incident two days later.”)
  • February 16, 1938: FDR signs the second Agricultural Adjustment Act. (“as part of a continuing effort to stabilize agricultural prices and farmers’ incomes. To these ends, his administration establishes the Federal Crop Insurance Corp, an agency which will accept wheat as payment for crop insurance taken out against the same crops.”)
  • March 13, 1938: Hitler’s German army annexes Austria to Germany. (“German troops move into Austria, allegedly to bring order to that country. Hitler, however, will fuse Austria to Germany an act he terms Anschluss and describes the annexation as a peaceful.”)
  • May 26, 1938: House of Representatives forms the Committee to Investigate Un- American Activities.
  • May 27, 1938: Over FDR’s veto, Congress passes the Revenue Act of 1938, reducing corporate income taxes for the purpose of stimulating the economy.
  • June 22-24, 1938: Congress passes the Chandler Act, amending the 1898 Federal Bankruptcy Act; the Civil Aeronautics Act; the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. “Congress continues to enact policies enlarging the federal government’s role in regulating American commerce and industry.”
  • June 25, 1938: FDR signs the Fair Labor Standards Act (“raising the minimum wage and setting the maximum work week at 40 hours, though only for businesses engaged in interstate commerce.”)
  • September 27, 1938: “In a private message to the leaders of Britain, France, Germany, and Czechoslovakia, FDR urges that they find a peaceful settlement to the growing crisis over the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia inhabited by a large number of ethnic Germans who, motivated by Hitler, are asking for autonomy.”
  • November 14, 1938: “Hugh Wilson, American ambassador to Germany, is called backed to the United States for “report and consultation” on anti-Jewish activities there. Four days later, the German ambassador to the United States is also recalled.”
  • March 15, 1939: “The German Army invades Czechoslovakia, five-and-a-half months after gaining the Sudetenland peacefully through the Munich pact. By the end of March, the entire country will be under German control.”
  • April 1, 1939: “As the Spanish Civil War effectively comes to an end, the United States recognizes the government headed by General Francisco Franco.”
  • April 7, 1939: “Italy invades the small country of Albania, located just across the Adriatic Sea. One week later, FDR writes to both Hitler and Mussolini requesting that they offer a ten-year guarantee of peace in Europe and the Middle East in return for U.S. cooperation in international trade.”
  • July 14-26, 1939: “FDR works to cement the U.S. alliance with Britain against the looming Fascist-totalitarian threat. Over these two weeks, he will ask Congress to repeal the arms embargo, revise the neutrality law, and end the trade agreement with Japan.”
  • August 23, 1939: Germany and the U.S.S.R. sign a non-aggression pact in Moscow.
  • August 24, 1939: “The world learns of the agreement the next day, creating disruption and dismay in both Communist and non-Communist circles as it seems to reveal Hitler’s intentions to move launch war on Poland.”
  • September 1, 1939: Second World War commences when Germany launches a major invasion of Poland.
  • September 3, 1939: France and Britain declare war on Germany; Roosevelt declares U.S. neutrality.
  • September 1939: World War II; “After World War II commences, Americans debate as to what position or level of involvement the United States should have in the war, Americans were divided between the doves (anti interventionists), hawks (interventionists), and hawkish doves (aid to Britain but not sending troops).”
  • November 30, 1939: “The U.S.S.R. invades Finland, bombing its capital, Helsinki.”
  • December 14, 1939: “E.B. Germany, co-chairman of the Garner-for-President Committee, says in a nation-wide radio broadcast from Dallas, Texas that Vice President Garner would be a candidate and would, at the proper time, make known “his willingness to accept the nomination for President.”” (NYT)
  • December 1939: Vice President John Nance Garner announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • Early 1940: Democratic National Committee Chairman James Farley announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination. Both Garner and Farley believe Roosevelt is not seeking a third term, and they receive Roosevelt’s permission to run.
  • January-February, 1940: “The Allies take heavy losses in the “Battle of the Atlantic.” Waged largely by German subs, or U-Boats, against the British Navy, the Allies lose about 440,000 tons of shipping during these two months alone.”
  • March 13, 1940: “Finland signs an armistice and treaty with the U.S.S.R., ending the Russo- Finnish War and ceding territory to the Russians.”
  • April 6-8, 1940: Socialist Party Convention nominates Norman Mattoon Thomas for President. The 11th Socialist Party National Convention convenes in the National Press Club Auditorium in Washington DC. There are 210 delegates present.
  • April 9, 1940: The Nazis end their “phony war” blitzkrieg against Scandinavia.  (“German Army invades Norway and Denmark in preparation for its invasion of France. Copenhagen falls in twelve hours, while the Norwegians resist for two months before falling to Germany.”)
  • May 10, 1940: Prohibition Convention nominates Roger Ward Babson for President. Prohibition National Convention assembles in Chicago IL. There were 230 delegates present from 10 states. The national ticket, nominated unanimously, was Roger W. Babson MA for President and Edgar V. Moorman IL for VP.
  • May 1940: The outbreak of World War II changes Roosevelt’s plans to retire, he then considered the possibility of a third term, he remained undecided until, when the Nazi overran the Low Countries. He would not however, openly seek the nomination, it would have to appear as a draft Roosevelt movement.
  • May 10, 1940: Belgium and the Netherlands fall. Germany invades Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Winston Churchill becomes the Prime Minister of Britain.
  • May 15, 1940: “Churchill sends Roosevelt the first of many personal telegrams requesting American aid and participation in the war.”
  • May 25, 1940: FDR establishes the Office for Emergency Management.
  • May 26-June 4, 1940: France falls as the German Army sweeps across France, thousands of British and French troops converge on Dunkirk, a coastal town in France, in preparation for evacuation of the country. By the time the Germans reach the beach to stop the operation, more than 330,000 troops have been evacuated.
  • June 4, 1940: “Churchill delivers his most famous radio address, framing the retreat from Dunkirk as a symbol of the Allies’ determination to win the war.”
  • June 10, 1940: “In a speech at the University of Virginia, Roosevelt announces that the American stance toward the war is changing from “neutrality” to “non-belligerency.”” (“In effect, this means that the United States will now openly support the Allies without actually going to war against the Axis. Generally well received, it is still criticized by some isolationists who understand that such a posture will eventually lead to outright war against the Axis powers.”)
  • June 20, 1940: FDR appoints two Republicans to his cabinet: Henry L. Stimson as secretary of war, and Frank Knox as secretary of the Navy. (“A political move, the decision is designed to form a “coalition government,” intended to present a unified front to both the world and to American voters as the 1940 election approaches.”)
  • June 14, 1940: Paris falls. ?
  • June 22, 1940: The French government capitulates to the Germans.
  • 1940: According to Public-opinion polls Americans wanted an experienced leader
  • American involvement in the World War Both the Republican and Democratic compromised, stay out of war but aid to the allies (threatened by aggression)
  • 1940: Franklin Roosevelt’s evasiveness as to whether he would run for an unprecedented third term; ignores reporters questions; political endorsements. His name is placed on several ballots and beat his leading opponent, Garner in the primaries.
  • June 24-28, 1940: Republican National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and nominates on the 6th ballot Wendell L. Willkie (New York) for President and Charles L. McNary (Oregon) for Vice President.  Dewey and Taft lead on the first ballot, but they are deadlocked and unable to receive a majority of delegate votes. An alternative for the candidacy is Wendell Willkie, an internationalist. Dewey loses delegate support after the third ballot, the Willkie movement sweeps over the delegates on the fourth ballot, where it became a contest between Taft and Willkie. Willkie gains momentum and delegate lead on the sixth ballot when Michigan gives Willkie delegate support. This prompts a shift of support from other state delegate resulting in Willkie’s nomination. Willkie has powerful businessmen and several leading Republicans endorsing and backing his candidacy. Minority Leader in the Senate from Oregon Charles L. McNary is chosen as Willkie’s running-mate.
  • June 28, 1940: “Congress passes the Alien Registration Act, requiring the registration and finger-printing of all aliens.” (“The bill also prohibits individuals or organizations from advocating the overthrow of the U.S. government by force.”)
  • July 10, 1940: The Battle of Britain begins with the first bombing raids by the German Air Force. (“Outnumbered, the British will retain control of British airspace, finally forcing the Germans to end the onslaught in October. Although the bombing raids will continue throughout the war, Hitler is forced to abandon any hope of invading Britain. Also on this day, FDR submits a request to Congress for a defense budget of $4.8 billion; ten days later, Congress will appropriate $4 billion to provide the United States with a two-ocean Navy.”)
  • July 15-18, 1940: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois. Alben W. Barkley (Kentucky) serves as chairman.  The convention renominates on the 1st ballot, Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York) for President, and nominates Henry A. Wallace (Iowa) for Vice President. Despite Roosevelt’s pre-convention statement that he has “no desire or purpose to continue in the office” he orchestrates delegate support that would capitulate himself to the nomination for an unprecedented 3rd time.
  • July 16, 1940: Harry Hopkins is in charge of the Roosevelt “draft” at the convention, and he maintains direct contact with the President at the White House. Thomas F. Garry, the city’s Superintendent of Sewers is placed in front of a microphone in a room under the auditorium and ready to be queued, to scream pro-Roosevelt chants to drum up support for the draft movement. Kentucky Senator Alben Barkley permanent chairman’s gives his speech on the second day, when he mentions Roosevelt, Chicago Mayor Ed Kelly gives the sign to Garry to commence. He yells “We want Roosevelt! The world wants Roosevelt!” and other pro-Roosevelt slogan’s over the speech’s remaining 22 minutes
  • July 16, 1940: After his speech Barkley announces the President decision on the nomination: “The President has never had and has not today any desire or purpose to continue in the office of the President, to be a candidate for that office, or to be nominated by the convention for that office. He wishes in all earnestness and sincerity to make it clear that all delegates to this convention are free to vote for any candidate. This is the message I bear to you from the President of the United States.” Prompting Garry, the “voice from the sewers” to commence yet again “The party wants Roosevelt. . . . Illinois wants Roosevelt. . . . The world needs Roosevelt. . . . Everybody wants Roosevelt!” The majority of delegates then nominate Roosevelt for a third term, however, not by acclamation, as Roosevelt hoped.
  • July 16, 1940: There is party and delegate opposition to Roosevelt’s choice of a new running mate,  Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, although he advocated the New Deal, aid to Britain and would get the farm belt, vote, Wallace had been a Republican, and was considered a “mystic.” Roosevelt threatens to refuse the nomination if Wallace would not be his running mate, and commenced his refusal speech
  • Eleanor Roosevelt flies to Chicago to give a speech favoring Wallace to the convention, hoping to placate the delegates, while Roosevelt’s campaign managers negotiate with the delegates. Delegates comply and Wallace is  nominated on the first ballot.
  • July 19, 1940. Franklin Roosevelt gives a radio address to the Democratic National Convention accepting the nomination. Roosevelt does not accept the nomination in person this time; instead, he gives a radio address. He states he does not wanted to run again, but the world crisis/war calls for personal sacrifice.
  • August 17, 1940, Wendell Willkie gives an address accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination in Elwood, Indiana.
  • Republican Wendell Willkie stumps, active campaigning, Whistle-stop, speech-making tour, 34,000 miles by train, thirty-four states, and over five hundred speeches. Campaign errors, in organization, amateur managers, staff, and attempts to write all his own speeches, even with a speechwriter came to many impromptu speeches, his voice could not keep up the speaking schedule. Campaigns against “the third term candidate,” perpetuate “one-man rule”
  • September 3, 1940: “Roosevelt announces the Lend-Lease program with Britain, an executive issued lending fifty or sixty World War I destroyers to Britain in exchange long-term leases on British air and sea bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the Caribbean.”
  • Willkie’s disagreement with the methods of passing the deal did not help his campaign especially after he attacks that the administration has neglected the nation’s defenses, and the Democrats respond the Republican congress in the 1930s blocked all attempts at defense bills, defense spending, and increases.
  • September 16, 1940: FDR signs the Selective Training and Service Act, a peace-time draft.  (“Authorizing the first peace-time military draft in U.S. history and requiring all men between the ages of twenty-one and thirty-five to register for military training.”
  • October 12, 1940: Roosevelt starts to actively campaign in October, gives his first of 5 campaign speeches in Philadelphia. The speeches discuss the various campaign issues; New Deal reforms, strengthen America’s defenses, commitment to aid Britain as an American defense, his emphasis is on the message of keeping America out of the war.
  • October 19, 1940: Roosevelt campaign announces that President Roosevelt would actively campaign for the election in the last two weeks of the campaign, by giving 5 major speeches and a campaign swing through the Eastern states.
  • Roosevelt blames isolationist Republicans for slowing American preparedness. Willkie counters that Roosevelt is going beyond defense planning to all-out scheming for American intervention.
  • October 1940: Willkie makes his comeback as the anti-war peace candidate, and gained steam in the public opinion polls.
  • October 28, 1940: Roosevelt addresses Madison, Square Garden campaign rally in New York.
  • October 30, 1940: Roosevelt gives a speech in Boston, which is his strongest message throughout the campaign about keeping the country out of war.
  • Nov, 1, 1940: Herbert Hoover campaigns in Salt Lake City, Utah for Wendell Willkie claims that the fundamental issue in the present campaign was still “the preservation of democracy,” and that a reelection for Roosevelt would increase his ‘Personal Power’ and it should be defeated.
  • November 5, 1940: Election Day, Democrats Franklin Roosevelt is reelected for unprecedented a third term and Henry Wallace elected Vice President.
  • December 16, 1940: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote meet in their state capitols.


1944

 

 

  • March 11, 1941: FDR signs the Lend-Lease Act.
  • May 27, 1941: “Following German victories over Greece and Yugoslavia, Roosevelt issues a proclamation declaring unlimited national emergency.”
  • June 16, 1941: “FDR orders the closing of all German consulates in the United States; Germany and Italy respond by closing all U.S. consulates in their countries.”
  • June 22, 1941: “Germany breaks the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 when it invades the U.S.S.R. Two days later, Roosevelt promises U.S. aid to the Soviet Union.”
  • June 25, 1941: Roosevelt issues an executive order and establishes the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC).
  • September 20, 1941: “FDR signs the largest tax bill in American history, as the Revenue Act of 1941 provides for sharply increased taxes to collect more than $3 billion for the defense effort.”
  • October 27, 1941: “Ten days after a German U-boat torpedoes the U.S. destroyer Kearney, FDR announces to the nation that “America has been attacked, the shooting has started.” He stops short of declaring war on Germany, however, as many Americans are still reluctant to enter into open war, even after another U-boat sinks the U.S. destroyer Reuben James just three days later with the loss of 100 American lives.”
  • December 7, 1941: “Japanese bombers attack Pearl Harbor, the major U.S. naval base in Hawaii. The attack kills 2,400 soldiers, sailors, and civilians, and wounds nearly 1,200 others. In addition, the U.S. Pacific fleet is significantly weakened by the loss of eight battleships and 150 planes. That evening, Japan will officially declare war on the United States.”
  • December 8, 1941: Roosevelt appears before a special Joint Session of Congress, calling December 7 “a date which will live in infamy,” and asking for a declaration of war against Japan; Congress does so the same day.
  • December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States; Congress, in turn, declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • January 14, 1942: “By proclamation, FDR orders all aliens in the United States to register with the federal government. The order is significant for Italian, German, and Japanese immigrants American citizens who are now viewed with suspicion, although most fears will focus on Japanese-Americans residing on the West Coast. They will soon be moved to internment camps under the pretense that they might provide aid to the enemy.”
  • June 19, 1942: “FDR meets with Winston Churchill in Washington, D.C., to plan the invasion of North Africa. On November 8, 400,000 Allied troops will land in Morocco and Algeria, under the command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the newly appointed commander of U.S. forces in the European theater.”
  • January 14-24, 1943: Casablanca Conference in Morocco. “At the Casablanca Conference in Morocco, FDR, Churchill, and other Allied representatives agree to the following: they will demand that the Axis powers surrender unconditionally; they will invade Europe initially through Sicily and Italy; they will launch a combined bomber offensive on Germany; they will step up aid to Russia; and they will prosecute the Battle of the Atlantic with greater vigor.”
  • April 8, 1943: “FDR freezes prices, wages, and salaries in an effort to stem inflation.”
  • May 7-13, 1943: “During the course of this week, Allied forces remove the Axis from North Africa through the forced surrender of German and Italian commanders. The two-year effort by the Axis to control North Africa, and specifically the Suez Canal, comes to an end.”
  • May 11-27, 1943: Trident Conference in Washington, D.C. “At the Trident Conference in Washington, D.C., Churchill, Roosevelt, and their top military planners meet and formulate a general strategy for the planned invasions of Europe, and for the commitment of forces to the European and the Pacific theaters.”
  • May 27, 1943: FDR establishes by executive order the Office of War Mobilization
  • June 9, 1943: “The Current Tax Payment Act goes into effect, introducing the withholding of federal income taxes on wages and salaries. Also known as the “Pay-As-You-Go-Act.””
  • July 25, 1943: “King Victor Emmanuel of Italy forces Benito Mussolini to resign after more than two decades as Il Duce, effectively ending Italy’s role as an Axis power. Allied forces will invade the country five weeks later; Italy will surrender unconditionally on September 8, although German troops will pour into the country, continuing the fight.”
  • August 11-24, 1943: “Quadrant Conference in Quebec, Roosevelt, Churchill and others agree on, among other items, a plan for the invasion of France, set for the spring of 1944.”
  • November 12, 1943: Prohibition Party National Convention nominates Claude Alonzo Watson for President.
  • November 22-26, 1943: “FDR, Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek meet at the Sextant Conference in Cairo, Egypt, and demand the unconditional surrender of Japan according to the following terms: it must restore Chinese territory; give Korea its independence; and give up all Pacific islands seized after 1914.”
  • November 28-December 1, 1943: FDR, Churchill Joseph Stalin meet at the Tehran Conference in Iran. “Flying from Cairo, FDR and Churchill meet Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference in Iran. At this, the first ever meeting of the “Big Three” leaders, the timing of the invasion of Europe is finally settled.”
  • 1944: Supporters want General Douglas MacArthur to run for the nomination, however, he is leading the Allied forces in the Pacific and could not actively campaign
  • 1944: Thomas Dewey wants the nomination, however, when he was elected Governor of New York in 1942, he promised to serve his entire four-year term. He could not actively campaign, or announce his intentions for the Republican nomination; However, his name is on write-ins in state primaries contests, and, Republican state conventions pledge delegates to vote for him at the convention
  • 1944: Wisconsin primary: Thomas Dewey: 14 delegates; Harold Stassen: 4 delegates; General Douglas MacArthur: 3 delegates; Wendall Willkie does not win a single delegate in the Wisconsin primary and subsequently withdrew from the race
  • May 1, 1944: Republican Isolationist are no longer able to find a candidate to represent them, they are looking to draft McCormick. (“The old-line isolationists who used to rule the roost out this way and who still have undoubted influence in the councils of local Republicanism are beginning to feel themselves nevertheless isolated in their own ranks after the speech of Governor Dewey in New York last week and the disavowal of Gen. Douglas MacArthur of any Presidential aspirations.”) (NYT)
  • May 16, 1944:  “Speaking in the name of 5,000,000 members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, the CIO Political Action Committee, meeting in Chicago concurrently with the convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers formally endorsed President Roosevelt for re-election today as “the only man in public life today qualified to lead the nation during the next four years.”” They want Wallace to have another term as Vice President.
  • June 4, 1944: Socialist Convention Norman nominates Mattoon Thomas for President.
  • June 4, 1944: “Allied forces enter Rome after German troops evacuate the city in retreat; it marks the beginning of the end of German resistance in Italy.”
  • June 6, 1944: “”D-Day”: Operation Overlord begins just after midnight, with some 4,000 invasion ships, 600 warships, 10,000 planes, and about 176,000 Allied troops. The invasion of the continent takes place at a series of beaches in Normandy. By the end of the day, and despite heavy casualties, around 150,000 Allied troops have safely reached the beach and are dug in.”
  • June 26-28, 1944: Republican National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois, and nominates on the 1st ballot, Thomas E. Dewey (New York) for President, and John W. Bricker (Ohio) for Vice President. Dewey as the frontrunner captures the nomination with near unanimous delegate support, one Wisconsin delegate votes for MacArthur.
  • June 28, 1944: Thomas E. Dewey gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Chicago.
  • July 5, 1944: “Thomas E. Dewey, while revealing a part of his own campaign plans, challenges President Roosevelt to carry out persistently reported plans to make some major campaign move on the battlefields abroad, such as the delivery from Normandy of the acceptance speech to the Democratic convention.” (NYT)
  • July 19-21, 1944: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Chicago Stadium, in Chicago, Illinois. Samuel D. Jackson (Indiana) serves as chairman. The convention renominates on the 1st ballot, Franklin D. Roosevelt, (New York) for President, and nominates Harry S. Truman (Missouri) for Vice President.  Roosevelt’s declining health and suspicions of concealed health problems, prompts the party’s conservatives oppose the renomination of Roosevelt’s second Vice-President Henry Wallace. Wallace left wing position and New Age spiritual beliefs concern conservatives considering that he might have to assume the Presidency. (Wallace had written coded letters discussing Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to his controversial Russian spiritual guru, Nicholas Roerich.) Roosevelt is renominated easily despite growing concern/opposition to his economic and social policies among conservatives in the party and in the South especially
  • July 19-21, 1944: Party leaders tell Roosevelt about their opposition to renominating Wallace for Vice President and suggest Missouri Senator Harry Truman, a moderate and chairman of a Senate wartime investigating committee. Roosevelt refuses to publicly support any of the Vice Presidential choices. Roosevelt’s second choice is James F. Byrnes of South Carolina, a conservative on race and labor issues, and Sidney Hillman, chairman of the CIO’s Political Action Committee and Roosevelt campaign contributor oppose being nominated. Roosevelt accepts Truman as his running mate for party unity, Truman himself is reluctant to accept the nomination. The agreement is called “the new Missouri Compromise.” Liberal delegates still support Henry Wallace and he maintains the lead in the first ballot. The Northern, Midwestern, and Southern state delegates support Truman, and he is able to clinch the nomination on the second ballot after shifts.
  • July 20, 1944: Franklin Roosevelt addresses the Democratic National Convention in Chicago and accepts his forth nomination for President.
  • July 1944: After the convention, Arthur Krock of the New York Times reports that FDR had told Hannegan: “Go down and nominate Truman before there’s any more trouble. And clear everything with Sidney.” Became a controversy, that Sidney Hillman had too much decision making power within the Roosevelt administration, Democratic Party;
  • August 21-October 7, 1944: Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D.C. “The Dumbarton Oaks Conference begins in Washington, D.C., attended by representatives of the United States, Britain, China, and the U.S.S.R. It lays the groundwork for the United Nations, an international organization for promoting peaceful and legal solutions to international problems.”
  • August 25, 1944: “Allied forces liberate Paris, France.”
  • September 11-16, 1944: “At the Octagon Conference in Quebec, FDR and Churchill discuss strategies for pursuing the Germans and Japanese and their treatment following the war.”
  • September 12, 1944: “American forces engage German troops on German soil for the first time in the war.”
  • September 10, 1944: “Governor Dewey’s opening campaign speeches “reveal that he has found no weak points in the armor of his opponent,” Frank Kingdon, chairman of the New Jersey League of Independent Voters for Roosevelt, declared yesterday, adding that the Republican candidate is “failing utterly in his attempt to charge the responsibility of the depression to the Roosevelt Administration.””
  • October 20-26, 1944: “U.S. forces invade Leyte Island in the Philippines. They are led by General MacArthur, who broadcasts to the Philippine people that he has fulfilled his promise of returning to the country. Three days later, the Japanese send a major naval force to disrupt the invasion. These forces meet in the Battle of the Leyte Gulf where the Japanese suffer a major defeat, losing twenty-four large ships; it is the largest naval engagement of the war and hereafter, the Japanese Navy is limited largely to suicide engagements in the form of Kamikaze fighter pilots.”
  • November 1, 1944: Boston, Governor Dewey declared here tonight that the Communists, using Sidney Hillman as a front, were trying to seize control of the Federal Government, and if they succeed, he added, the fundamental American freedoms, particularly freedom of religion, would be endangered. Republicans visceral attacks on Roosevelt and the administration and linked the Democrats to Communism: Linked Sidney Hillman, who praised Russia’s resistance to the Nazi invasion with Earl Browder (urged the Communist Party to support FDR) DEWEY PREDICTS ‘RED MENACE’ RISE IF ROOSEVELT WINS; Asserts Communists With Aid of Hillman Seek to Seize Control of Government.
  • Communism issue: Republican newspapers, orators and Dewey linked the American alliance in the war with Russia and Communist Party support for Roosevelt to communism influence within the Roosevelt administration
  • Mid-September 1944: At First Roosevelt decides not campaign/stump, but continue responsibilities as Commander-in-Chief. Tired of the attacks that his health is failing and the rumors that Roosevelt could not live out the term. Roosevelt commences stumping, plans to give five speeches, to answer his criticism show he was physically up to the challenge
  • September 23, 1944: Franklin Roosevelt gives a campaign dinner address in Washington, DC to the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America. Roosevelt takes to the stump, his first of speeches answering his critics, was to the Teamsters Union in Washington, which is considered the best campaign speech of his career. Fala Speech: Speech is carried on national radio in which he ridicules Republican claims that his administration is corrupt and wasteful with tax money. He particularly ridicules a GOP claim that he had sent a US Navy warship to pick up his Scottish terrier Fala in Alaska, noting that “Fala was furious” at such rumors
  • September 25, 1944: In response, Dewey gives a blistering partisan speech in Oklahoma City on national radio, in which he accuses Roosevelt of being “indispensable” to corrupt big-city Democratic organizations and American Communists; he also referred to members of FDR’s cabinet as a “motley crew”,  Accusing the President of incompetence, arrogance, inefficiency, fatigue, and senility.
  • September 30, 1944:

DEWEY’S LIVELY SPEECH SPURS REPUBLICAN HOPE; Retort to Roosevelt Has Changed Tone Of Campaign and His Party Thinks The Democrats Blundered BUT LATTER SEE IT OTHERWISE  There is plentiful evidence that the Republican campaign management is much encouraged by the effects of the President’s first openly political speech, one of which was the vigorous reply of the party candidate, Gov. Thomas E. Dewey. There is abundant evidence also that the oratorical exchange has given to the Republican management more hope than before of a successful election outcome.

  • October 1944: To quiet rumors of his poor health, Roosevelt insists on making a vigorous campaign swing, and rode in an open car through city streets
  • October 1944: Battle of Leyte Gulf, Philippines.
  • October 27, 1944: California Republican leaders are pleased by the third private poll they took during the Presidential campaign, which indicate that Dewey could win California by 140,000 votes. However, bets still indicate 4 to 1 that President Roosevelt will carry the State.
  • November 1, 1944: “Two labor leaders listed by the Republican State Committee deny being among those signing a round-robin letter endorsing Governor Dewey for President and blaming President Roosevelt for prolonging the depression.” (NYT)
  • November 7, 1944: Election Day, Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected President for unprecedented forth term and Harry S. Truman is elected Vice President.
  • December 18, 1944 Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitols.

 

 


1948

 

  • April 12, 1945: President Roosevelt dies. President Franklin Roosevelt’s death at the verge of the end of World War II, leaves Vice President Harry Truman as President “‘Good God, Truman will be President!'” Cabell Phillips New York Times, White House press corps
  • May 8, 1945: “Germany surrenders, ending World War II in Europe.”
  • July 17-August 2, 1945: Potsdam Conference (United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union representatives attend)
  • August 6, 1945: “United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.”
  • August 9, 1945: “United States drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.”
  • August 14, 1945: Japan surrenders, ending World War II in the Pacific.
  • September 12, 1946: “Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace criticizes U.S. foreign policy in a speech in New York City.”
  • September 20, 1946: “Truman asks for, and receives, Wallace’s resignation.”
  • November 5, 1946: In the Mid-Term elections, the Republican Party wins control of both houses of the United States Congress and a majority of state governorships. (Senate 51–45;  House 246–188).  Republican campaign slogan “Had Enough?” and removing the four C’s: controls, confusion, corruption, and Communism
  • January 4, 1947: Henry A. Wallace forms the Progressive Citizens of America in New York last week-end by an … The thinking of the PCA is personified by Henry A. Wallace …
  • March 12, 1947: Truman delivers his “Truman Doctrine” speech to Congress  ($400 million appropriation to fight the spread of Communism in Greece and Turkey), policy of containment.
  • May 22, 1947: Truman signs the “Truman Doctrine” appropriation approved by Congress for Greece and Turkey.
  • June 5, 1947: “George Marshall proposes economic aid to Europe in an address at Harvard University. Officially titled the Economic Recovery Program, the package becomes known as the “Marshall Plan.””
  • June 20, 1947: “Truman vetoes the Taft-Hartley Act.”
  • June 23, 1947: Congress overrides Truman’s veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • June 28, 1947: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Claude Alonzo Watson for President.
  • July 26, 1947: Congress passes the National Security Act, which creates the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the National Security Resources Board.
  • July 29, 1947: Vegetarian Party Convention convenes in the Hotel Commodore, New York City during the sessions of the American Naturopathic Association. Convention nominates John A. Maxwell for President, and associate magazine editor Symon Gould for Vice President.
  • January 17, 1948: the Progressive Citizens of America endorses Henry A. Wallace for President. Wallace tells “600 cheering delegates to the annual PCA convention today that the way to end inflation was “to take the profit out of it.””
  • February 1948: Soviet Czechoslovakia coup
  • February 1948: Civil-rights package threatens Democratic disunity from the South led by South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond.
  • Draft General Dwight Eisenhower by the Democrats and Republicans (party affiliation unknown still), Eisenhower declines both parties
  • April 2, 1948: “Congress passes the European Recovery Program (the “Marshall Plan”)”
  • May 14, 1948: “United States recognizes the state of Israel.”
  • May 1948: Harry Truman has a 36 percent approval rating according to Gallup, appears soft on Communism.
  • 1948: Public opinion polls show Republicans prime for recapturing the White House. Truman trails the Republican nominee Dewey by double digits
  • 1948: There is a “Dump” Truman movement working to drop Truman from the nomination. There is a loss of liberals and Southern conservatives from Democratic New Deal coalition.
  • June 1948: Truman takes a “non-political” tour across the country; instead of using prepared texts, he speaks off the cuff appearing friendlier and attracts cheering crowds of supporters. He adopts what would be the theme of his campaign, Truman attacked the Republican Congress calling them “the worst in my memory” whose interest lied in “the welfare of the better classes” than the ordinary people. Truman completed the tour confident he could win the election
  • June 19, 1948: The New York Times reports that domestic issues are the main campaign issues.
  • June 21-25, 1948: Republican National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania nominates on the 3rd ballot, Thomas E. Dewey (New York) for President and Earl Warren (California) for Vice President.  Republicans believe that victory over Truman was assured; The convention nominates California Governor Earl Warren for Vice President;
  • June 28, 1944: Thomas E. Dewey gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Chicago. The speech is dignified, and attempts to stand above politics.
  • July 3, 1948: Socialist Workers Party National Convention convenes in the Irving Plaza Hall, New York City, and nominates Farrell Dobbs (New York) for President and Grace Carlson (Minnesota) for Vice-President.
  • July 12-14, 1948: Democratic National Convention convenes at Convention Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sam Rayburn (Texas) serves as chairmen. Convention nominates on 1st ballot, Harry S. Truman (Missouri) for President and Alben W. Barkley (Kentucky) for Vice President.  Civil Rights becomes the main source of contention and debate at the convention. Hubert Humphrey, young mayor of Minneapolis rises to national prominence by pushing through a strong civil rights plank in the platform. The South supports Georgia Senator Richard B. Russell in protest of Truman’s Civil Right’s policies, he receives more than 90 percent of the votes from remaining Southern delegates. Truman is renominated on the first ballot. Alben W. Barkley, the Senate Majority Leader (Kentucky) gives a “rip-roaring keynote address” is chosen as Truman’s running-mate, and is nominated by acclamation.
  • July 11, 1948: Thirteen Alabama delegates and the entire Mississippi delegation withdrew from the convention in opposition to the civil rights plank; left the convention to form the States Rights Party.
  • July 17, 1948: States’ Rights Democratic Party: (formed prior to the Democratic convention); nominates Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for President, and Governor Fielding Wright of Mississippi for Vice President.  Convention three days after walking out of the Democratic Convention, Montgomery, Alabama; “Dixiecrats” states-rights segregationists; Delegates from thirteen states. The party hopes to be a spoiler and have the election thrown into the House of Representatives, where the Southern states could chose an opponent of civil-rights legislation to win the election
  • July 1948: Progressive Party convention convenes in Philadelphia. The delegates consist of Old New Deal policies advocates, and pacifists, reformers, disaffected New Dealers, some American Stalinists, and communists. Founder and former Vice President and Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace is nominated for President, and Democratic Senator Glen Taylor (Idaho) (“Singing Cowboy”) is nominated for Vice President. The party promotes world peace and blames the Truman administration for the Cold War. The Progressive platform rejects Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and supports an end to the Cold War through  negotiations with Russia.
  • June 24, 1948: West Berlin blockade: “The Soviet Union blockades the overland access routes to West Berlin.”
  • June 26, 1948: Truman sends an airlift to Berlin, which supplied 2,400,000 West Berliners with food and provisions, Americans approve of Truman’s decisiveness and actions.
  • July 25, 1948: Special session of the 80th Congress meets. Truman calls a special session of Congress as a dare to Republican Party to enact or pass any legislation from their party platform; Truman wants eight social-welfare legislations passed including housing, civil rights, and price controls. Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft calls it an “omnibus left-wing program”. For two weeks the Congress argues and debate, but then adjournsd without passing/accomplishing anything, as Truman had expected. Dewey wants Senator Taft to pass any legislation to prove Truman wrong, but Taft thought Truman was bluffing “cheap politico,” and refuses. Truman uses Republican lack of initiative as his main campaign slogan named the 80th Congress “the do-nothing Congress.” Commences his extensive whistle-stop tour
  • July 30, 1948:? “President Truman and Governor Dewey meet at the International Airport at Idlewild for the opening of the International Air Show, marks the first time in modern American history, according to available records, that opposing Presidential candidates of the two major parties appear together at a public function and speak from the same rostrum.”
  • August 11, 1948: “Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, formally accepts the States Rights party nomination for the Presidency in Houston, Texas and links Harry S. Truman, Thomas E. Dewey and Henry A. Wallace together charging they would lead America to “the rocks of totalitarianism.””
  • September 4-November 1948: Truman actively campaigns with an extensive nationwide whistle-stop tour 21,928 miles by rail. He gives 275 speeches beginning on Labor Day and ending Election Day. Truman addresses large crowds at “whistlestops” and big cities Rear platform campaign. Truman appearances on train platforms, and introduces his family after short speeches: “Howja like to meet my family?” his wife Bess as “the boss” and daughter Margaret as “the boss’s boss.”
  • September 4, 1948: President Truman and Governor Dewey contend for the allegiance of American Federation of Labor members in Labor Day messages written for The American Federationist, the AFL’s monthly magazine.
  • September 5, 1948: General election commences.
  • Labor Day 1948: Dewey leads Truman in the polls by the double-digits. Pollsters George Gallup and Archibald Crossley and fifty political writers predict a Dewey victory by a large margin.
  • September 1948: Elmo Roper poll has Thomas E. Dewey leading Harry Truman, 41 to 31 percent “no amount of electioneering” would change the result by the election; St. Louis betting commissioner named Dewy the fifteen-to-one favorite
  • September 7, 1948: Three main candidates reveal their fall campaign schedules. “President Truman, Governor Dewey and Henry A. Wallace all will wind up their campaigns for the Presidency in the New York metropolitan area, tentative schedules of the three rivals show.”
  • September 20, 1948: “The 1948 Presidential campaign enters its intensive phase this week, with both major party candidates, President Truman, Democrat, and Governor Dewey, Republican, on transcontinental speaking trips to the Pacific Coast.” Truman attempts to take the offensive in the campaign, Dewey tries to maintain his lead and win more of the Democratic vote. The farm vote appears undecided.
  • Sept. 20, 1948: “President Truman warned applauding Colorado audiences today that the Republican party sought national power on the “most hypocritical” platform ever written and that, if it won the election, it would try again to make the West “an economic colony of Wall Street.” GOP ‘HYPOCRISY’ HIT; President Asserts Rival Party’s Platform Sets Record for Deceit”
  • Dewey promises a safe dignified campaign for a President to-be; ignores Truman and avoids specifics in his speeches; wants the public to view him as the candidate who could unify the country and create an effective foreign policy. Although it backfires, the public and press find him stuffy.
  • October 1948: Dewey wants to engage in a more active campaign, mudslinging, but is advised against it. Dewy accuses Truman of mudslinging, of there being Communists in the government, and of Truman allowing Communists regimes to rise in Europe and Asia.
  • 1948: Progressive candidate Wallace refuses to repudiate the Communist party’s endorsement; he faces hostile rallies and crowds that throw eggs and rotten vegetables
  • 1948: Thurmond campaigns primarily in the South, finds it difficult to gain support, the majority still supported the Democratic Party they had for decades, because the party controls patronage
  • October 20, 1948: “There is virtually unanimous agreement in Florida political circles that at this time President Truman and Governor Dewey are running neck-and-neck in the race to capture the state’s eight electoral votes.”
  • October 23, 1948: While pleading for his own election on the record of the New Deal and his own administration, President Truman tonight hammers Gov. Thomas E. Dewey, his Republican opponent, as a “doctor’ with a “magic cure”, and man of “gall” who he said was given to “double-talk” and “misrepresentation.”
  • October 27, 1948: Gov. Thomas E. Dewey speaking in Cleveland and accuses President Truman of helping communism and the Soviet Union at home and abroad. “Dewey claims an alternate of appeasing and firm stand aided spread of Communist sway around half the world.”
  • October 1948: Dewey made foreign policy his main issue, he charges that under Truman “our allies in war” were being treated “as enemies in peace.” These charges are irrelevant base on foreign policy realities.
  • November 1, 1948: Final polls, Gallup poll: Dewey 49.5 percent, Truman 44.5 percent; Crossley poll: 49.9 percent for Dewey and 44.8 percent for Truman. Elmo Roper: (Dewey, 52.2 percent, and Truman, 37.1 percent): “I stand by my prediction. Dewey is in.”
  • November 1, 1948: “New York Times predicts VOTE IN THE SOUTH MAY COST TRUMAN SEVERAL STATES; Civil-Rights Revolt May Carry 4 Southern States as Dewey Gets Chance in 3 Others. The revolt of the States’ Rights Democrats against President Harry S. Truman on the civil-rights issue not only will cost him the thirty-eight electoral votes of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina, but probably will enable Gov. Thomas E. Dewey to win the eleven electoral votes of Virginia and give the Republican Presidential candidate a fair, though possibly not an even, chance to carry Florida with eight electoral votes and Tennessee with twelve electoral votes.”
  • November 2, 1948: Election Day; Harry S. Truman is elected President and Alben W. Barkley is elected Vice President. The Democratic Party regains control of both the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Chicago Tribune prematurely announces Dewey wins over Truman on their front page.
  • December 13, 1948: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 

 

 


1952

 

  • January 5, 1949: “Truman proposes the “Fair Deal” in his State of the Union address.”
  • April 4, 1949: “Twelve nations from Europe and North America sign the North Atlantic Treaty.”
  • May 12, 1949: “The Soviet Union lifts the Berlin blockade.”
  • September 23, 1949: “Truman announces that the Soviet Union has detonated an atomic bomb.”
  • October 1, 1949: Mao Zedong announces the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
  • January 31, 1950: “Truman announces that the United States will develop a hydrogen bomb.”
  • February 9, 1950: Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) speaks in Wheeling, West Virginia, and charges that the State Department employs 205 known Communists.
  • February 14, 1950: “Mao and Stalin sign the Sino-Soviet alliance.”
  • April 7, 1950: “The National Security Council presents NSC-68 to Truman.”
  • June 25, 1950: North Korea invades South Korea.
  • June 30, 1950: Korean War begins. “Truman announces that he has ordered American ground forces stationed in Japan to Korea. General Douglas MacArthur commands the U.S. (and United Nations) troops.”
  • November 7, 1950: Mid-Term Elections, Republicans gain seats in both Houses.
  • November 26, 1950: “China launches a massive counteroffensive against American advances in North Korea.”
  • December 16, 1950: “Truman proclaims a state of national emergency and imposes wage and price controls.”
  • April 5, 1951: “Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are sentenced to death following their convictions on conspiring to provide secret information to the Soviet Union.”
  • April 11, 1951: “Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur from his command of both U.S. and U.N. forces in Korea.”
  • October 10, 1951: “Truman signs the Mutual Security Act, authorizing more than $7 billion for foreign economic, military, and technical aid.”
  • November 15, 1951: Prohibition Convention nominates C. Stuart Hamblen for President.
  • 1951-1952: American “Winter of Discontent”; stalemated Korean War; unpopular President Harry S. Truman would not commit to seeking another term.
  • March 1952: Truman announces all troops would be withdrawn from the unpopular Korean War, in a decision claimed to have been made in 1951.
  • March 29, 1952: “Truman declares that he will not be a candidate for re-election.” 1952: Draft Eisenhower movement.
  • Republicans want to run a campaign against Truman aides’ corruption and opposition to anti-Communist Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Republican formula for victory, K1C3: Korea, crime, Communism, and corruption, the main issues of the campaign K1C3; “the mess in Washington”
  • Republicans remained split between Thomas Dewey’s Eastern moderates and Robert Taft’s Midwestern conservative wings of the party.
  • Dewey refuses to run for the president a third time and was part of the Draft Eisenhower movement.
  • Taft chose to run again to preserve conservative interests.
  • March 11, 1952: Eisenhower wins the New Hampshire primary by 50% to 38% and won all of the Republican delegates. The next day he officially announced his candidacy. Staff campaigners campaign in New Hampshire for Eisenhower while he is still on duty in Europe, he returns to the United States after he wins the primary.
  • March 2, 1952: Truman withdraws from the Democratic Presidential nomination race after he lost the New Hampshire primary to Estes Kefauver
  • Truman supported as a successor Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson (declined to run) or Vice President Alben Barkley
  • Taft wins six primaries and Ike won five, Taft has a lead in the number of delegates entering the convention
  • Kefauver wins twelve of sixteen primaries, but was not a favorite of the bosses
  • The South supported Georgia Senator Richard Russell
  • May 5, 1952: Social Labor Party Convention nominates Eric Hass for President.
  • June 2, 1952: SOC Convention Darlington Hoopes
  • July 6, 1952: Progressive Party Convention nominated Vincent William Hallinan
  • July 7-11, 1952: Republican National Convention convenes at the International Amphitheatre, Chicago, nominates on the 1st ballot, Dwight D. Eisenhower (New York) for President, Richard M. Nixon of (California); Taft leads Eisenhower in the delegate count at the convention’s commencement. Eisenhower wins on the first ballot by a 595–500 margin, but does not achieve a majority for the nomination. After shifts from several states, Eisenhower win the nomination with 845 votes Eisenhower chose as his running mate Sen. Richard M. Nixon of California to placate western conservatives
  • July 21-26, 1952: Democratic National Convention convenes at the International Amphitheatre, Chicago, Sam Rayburn (Texas) serves as chairman. Nominates on the 3rd ballot, Adlai E. Stevenson (Illinois) for President and John J. Sparkman (Alabama) for Vice President. Kefauver leads in delegates at the commencement of the convention with 11 candidates at the convention vying for the nomination. President Truman refuses to endorse any candidate. Adlai Stevenson’s rousing speech welcoming the delegates to the convention prompts the delegates to chose Steven as the compromise candidate. Party nominates Adlai E. Stevenson on the third ballot despite his reluctance, he is first candidate legitimately drafted to the nomination since Garfield in 1880.
  • July 26, 1952: Adlai Stevenson gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
  • August 28, 1952: American Labor Party Convention nominates Vincent William Hallinan for President.
  • August 31, 1952: Constitution Party Convention nominates Douglas MacArthur for President.
  • 1952: Eisenhower stumping campaign, 33,000 miles, by plane, and gave two hundred speeches, forty were televised. Eisenhower commercials major feature especially towards the end of the campaign; sound bites/ads “Ike for President” “You like Ike, I like Ike, everybody likes Ike”
  • September 2-November 1, 1952: “Truman campaigns on behalf of Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson.”
  • 1952: Stevenson stumps; witty campaigner; but also serious about the issues. Stevenson also buys 30-minute blocks on TV for long speeches, but no one watches, because they are too long.
  • Eisenhower never takes the low road in attacks against the Democrats and Stevenson, Senators Jenner and McCarthy, and running mate, Richard Nixon. Nixon are in charge of the attacks
  • September 1952:  Eisenhower’s early moderation on the issues did not drum up support and the campaign was lackluster. Eisenhower has a two-hour conference with Senator Taft in New York appeasing party right-wingers. Issued a statement, and the main campaign would be “liberty against creeping socialism,” K1C2 formula
  • September 18, 1952: the New York Post headline “SECRET NIXON FUND” “Secret Rich Men’s Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary” “Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary.” The paper accuses Sixty-six Californians of setting up a “slush fund” with over $18,000 for Nixon, while he was a Senator. Became front page news over the country Accusations that Republican Vice-Presidential candidate Richard Nixon has a secret slush fund.
  • Taft defends Nixon, party leaders and Eisenhower consider dropping Nixon from the ticket, since how could Eisenhower run against corruption, if there is corruption within the ticket
  • September 23, 1952: Richard Nixon gives his “Checkers” speech on television defends his fund as legitimate, accounts his personal finances, recounts his humble upbringing, and the simple style his family lives. Nixon speech attracts the largest television audience to date; the Republican national headquarters receives thousands of letters, cards, and telegrams in support of Nixon
  • October 3, 1952: In Milwaukee, Eisenhower intends to defend his friend General George C. Marshall, who William Jenner calls a “front man for traitors”, and Joseph McCarthy who called Marshall a “traitor”, the passage was in the press release, but pressure from Republican party leaders forces Eisenhower to omit it from his speech.
  • October 10, 1952: “President Truman came charging into New York at night for the ninety-eighth stop on his two-week whistle-stop tour of the country by special train, continuing his appeal for the election of Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois Democratic candidate for President, and his attack on Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican nominee.” Truman charges that Eisenhower’s tactics imperil nation’s morale. (NYT)
  • October 25, 1952: Dwight D. Eisenhower gives ”I Shall Go to Korea” Speech. Eisenhower announces he would end the Korean War and travel to Korea if elected, which becomes the front-page story.  Democrats call it a “grandstand gesture,” but the American public approves and, although the polls had Eisenhower in a slight lead, they now show he is certain to win.
  • 1952: Stevenson later claims that he had considered announcing to go to Korea, but decided against it.
  • November 4, 1952: Election Day; Republicans Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected President and Richard M. Nixon is elected Vice President.
  • December 15, 1952: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitals.

 


1956

 

  • July 26, 1953: Korean War ends, “Eisenhower addresses the American public and announces an armistice in Korea.”
  • April 23-June 17, 1954: “The Army-McCarthy hearings begin and continue for two months.” “McCarthyism” declines, Joseph McCarthy is censured by the Senate.
  • November 2, 1954: Republicans lose control of Congress in the mid-term elections “Democratic Party narrowly regains control of both houses of Congress.”
  • September 24, 1955: “President Dwight Eisenhower suffers a “moderate” heart attack  in Denver, Colorado.”
  • September 6, 1955: 22nd Prohibition Party National Convention convenes at Camp Mack in Milford, Indiana. The convention consists of 154 delegates from 16 states and DC and 107 votes. A third of the delegates come from Indiana. The convention nominates Enoch A. Holtwick (Illinois) for President and Herbert C. Holdridge (California) for Vice President. Holdridge later withdraws, and the national committee then selects Edward M. Cooper (California).
  • November 15, 1955: After a would tour, Adlai Stevenson announces his intention to run again for the Democratic nomination. This time he is not drafted, he has competition for the nomination.
  • December 26, 1955: “Eisenhower tries to persuade Richard Nixon to take a cabinet post, and not stand for re-election in 1956 as vice president.”
  • Main candidates in the primaries former Illinois Governor and 1952 candidate Adlai Stevenson; and Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver; Stevenson led in the polls; loss Minnesota primary; won California by a 2-1 margin Kefauver wins two more primaries than Stevenson, but withdrew from the race
  • President Harry Truman endorses New York Governor Averell Harriman, Harriman continues his campaign through the convention
  • February 29, 1956: Eisenhower announces that he will run for a second term as President. Eisenhower announces his candidacy for reelection, after doctors clear his health.
  • April 9, 1956: “Eisenhower again urges Nixon to take a cabinet post.”
  • April 25, 1956: “Eisenhower announces that Nixon will be his running mate in 1956.”
  • May 7, 1956: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Eric Hass for President.
  • May 31, 1956: “Eisenhower approves U-2 spy flights over the Soviet Union.”
  • June 10, 1956: Socialist Party Convention nominates Darlington Hoopes for President.
  • June 1956: Eisenhower returns to the hospital for the removal for ileitis, an intestinal obstruction, but returns to work quickly, afterwards again announces his intention to run for reelection.
  • July 26, 1956: “Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal.”
  • July-August 1956: Harold E. Stassen, President Eisenhower’s special cabinet assistant on disarmament suggests Eisenhower choose a stronger running-mate than Nixon. Stassen suggests Christian A. Herter, Governor of Massachusetts. Stassen campaigns for four-weeks prior to the convention for Herter in an  attempt to persuade convention delegates to support Herter
  • August 13-17, 1956: Democratic National Convention convenes at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois. Sam Rayburn (Texas) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on 1st ballot, Adlai E. Stevenson (Illinois) for President and  Estes Kefauver (Tennessee). Stevenson is nominated on the first ballot. Rather than choose his running mate, Stevenson allows the convention delegates to make the decision.
  • August 13-17, 1956: Vice Presidential Democratic candidates, include Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy, Tennessee Senator Albert A. Gore, New York City Mayor John F. Wagner, and Minnesota Senator Hubert H. Humphrey. Estes Kefauver takes the lead in delegate votes on the first ballot, Kennedy wins the second ballot, but neither reaches the majority needed. After the second ballot Gore withdraws, and gives his delegate support to Kefauver, causing a bandwagon movement for Kefauver. Kefauver wins the Vice Presidential nomination on the third ballot.
  • August 17, 1956: Adlai E. Stevenson gives his Democratic Presidential nomination acceptance speech at the convention in Chicago, Illinois.
  • August 19, 1956: 3rd Socialist Workers Party National Convention convenes in  Adelphi Hall in New York City. There are 30 delegates present from 12 states. Nominated Farrell Dobbs for President, Myra T. Weiss for Vice-President.
  • August 20-23, 1956: Republican National Convention convenes at Cow Palace,  San Francisco renominates on the 1st ballot, Dwight D. Eisenhower (Pennsylvania) for President and Richard M. Nixon (California) for Vice President. California Governor Goodwin J. Knight also runs for Vice-President.
  • August 22, 1956: Herter declines to run for the Vice Presidential nomination; Nixon has a majority of delegate support. Stassen tells Eisenhower, he is abandoning his plan, and wants to give the seconding speech for Nixon’s nomination.
  • August 23, 1956: Dwight Eisenhower gives his address accepting the Nomination of the Republican National Convention at the Cow Palace.
  • August 28, 1956: Constitution Party Convention nominates Thomas Coleman Andrews for President.
  • October 15, 1956: 2nd States Rights Party National Convention convenes at  Mosque Auditorium in Richmond, Virginia, with 2,200 delegates present. The convention nominates Thomas Coleman Andrews for President and Thomas H. Werdel for Vice President.
  • Eisenhower wants a more dignified campaign “on a higher level than in the past “befitting the sitting President. He restrains Nixon’s red baiting “new Nixon”.  Nixon actively campaignes, 42,000 miles in his speaking tour; Eisenhower campaigns less than in 1952, because of his health, gives speeches identifying the domestic and foreign policy record/successes of the administration.
  • Adlai Stevenson conducts an energetic campaign to show vigor as opposed to Eisenhower;
  • Stevenson gives a series of speeches “New America” five policy papers (senior citizens, health, education, natural resources, economic policy)
  • Stevenson wants to end the draft; develop a trained professional volunteer defense corps; and a nuclear bomb test ban treaty.
  • October 19, 1956: Dwight Eisenhower gives an address at the Hollywood Bowl, Beverly Hills, California.
  • October 22, 1956: Hungarian Revolution begins.
  • October 23, 1956: Soviet troops suppressing the Hungarian Revolution in Budapest: The Soviet Union brutally invades Hungary, in an attempt to suppress the Hungarian government’s threat to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. But Eisenhower chose not to come to the assistance of the Hungarian government, fearful that doing so might touch off a war with the Soviets.
  • October 24, 1956: Eisenhower chooses to condemn the invasion and to assist the Hungarian refugees. The international crises gives Eisenhower the advantage, and enlarges his predicted landslide victory
  • Stevenson criticizes Eisenhower’s decisions with the Suez Canal crisis and Hungarian Revolution; “the total bankruptcy of the administration’s foreign policy”
  • October 29-October 31, 1956: Israel, Britain, and France attack Egypt; Eisenhower condemns the attack. Suez Canal crisis, (Israel, Britain, and France attacked Egypt, prevent nationalization of the Suez Canal) Eisenhower puts  pressure for cease-fire in the Sinai peninsula (“Eisenhower joins with the United Nations and Russia in condemning the Anglo-French-Israeli action and pressured them to withdraw their troops. Eisenhower backs up his words by imposing economic sanctions on the three countries; soon after they withdrew their troops.”) Betrayal by American allies.
  • November 4, 1956: “The Soviet Union crushes the Hungarian Revolution via armed intervention.”
  • November 5, 1956: “A cease-fire is established in Egypt.”
  • November 6, 1956: Election Day, Republicans Dwight D. Eisenhower is reelected President and Richard M. Nixon is reelected Vice President. The American people are not willing to change their president at a time of international uncertainty, and Eisenhower’s military record and leadership experience are perceived as assets in this climate
  • December 17, 1956: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state’s capitals.

 

 


1960

  • March 5-March 7, 1957: “Congress sanctions the “Eisenhower Doctrine.””
  • May 6, 1957: “John F. Kennedy wins a Pulitzer Prize for his book Profiles in Courage.”
  • July 24, 1959: Nixon and Khrushchev have their “kitchen debate” in Moscow.
  • September 3, 1959: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Rutherford L. Decker for President.
  • 1959: New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller conducts an exploratory tour, but does not continue pursuing the nomination
  • Party “Favorite sons” Lyndon B. Johnson, Stuart Symington, and Adlai E. Stevenson do not campaign in the primaries; they hope to garner the nomination by becoming the “compromise” candidates after the primary contenders do not gain enough delegates to capture the nomination.
  • January 2, 1960: “Senator John F. Kennedy announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.”
  • January 9, 1960: “Vice President Nixon announces his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.”
  • January 13, 1960: “Eisenhower declares his support for Nixon.”
  • John F. Kennedy and Humphrey lack connections with the party leaders and go through the primaries to get delegate support. Kennedy participates in 9 primaries; wins Wisconsin with heavy Catholic vote
  • March 8, 1960: New Hampshire primary, Democrat Kennedy 85%
  • March 26, 1960: “Senator Lyndon B. Johnson will probably announce his candidacy for President a month or two before the Democratic National Convention.”
  • April 5, 1960: Wisconsin primary, Kennedy 56%, Humphrey 44%, Kennedy wins Wisconsin with support of the heavy Catholic vote.
  • April 12, 1960: Illinois primary, Democrat Kennedy 65%, Humphrey 8%
  • April 19, 1960: New Jersey primary, Democrat unpledged 100%
  • April 26, 1960: Massachusetts primary, Democrat Kennedy, 92%, Humphrey 1%, Pennsylvania Primary;  Democrat Kennedy 71%, Humphrey 4%
  • May 1, 1960: “Soviet Union shoots down a U-2 reconnaissance plane over Russia; President Eisenhower’s summit meeting with Khrushchev later was canceled over the incident.”
  • May 3, 1960: Indiana primary; Kennedy, 81%; Ohio primary, Michael DiSalle 60% ; Washington, D.C. primary, Democrat Humphrey, 57%
  • May 5, 1960: “Soviet Union announces it has shot down an American U-2 spy plane.”
  • May 7, 1960: “Eisenhower acknowledges that the United States has been conducting U-2 spy flights over the Soviet Union. Khrushchev announces that Francis Gary Powers, a downed U-2 pilot, has admitted to spying on the Soviet Union.”
  • May 10, 1960: Kennedy ran against Hubert Humphrey in West Virginia, heavily Protestant population won with over 60% of the vote, proves Kennedy appeal beyond Catholic electorate
    • Nebraska primary, Democrat Kennedy 89%, Humphrey 4%;
    • West Virginia primary, Democrat Kennedy, 61%, Humphrey 39%
  • May 16, 1960: “Paris Summit between the Soviet Union and the United States ends when Eisenhower refuses to apologize for the U-2 flights and Khrushchev refuses to meet with the President.”
  • May 17, 1960: Maryland primary, Democrat Kennedy 70%, Unpledged 8%
  • May 20, 1960: Oregon primary, Democrat Kennedy 51%, Humphrey 6%
  • May 24, 1960: Florida primary, Democrat George Smathers, 100%
  • June 7, 1960: California primary, Democrat Pat Brown 67%
  • June 7, 1960:  South Dakota primary, Democrat Humphrey 100%
  • Spring 1960: “Eisenhower cancels a trip to Japan due to anti-American sentiment.”
  • 1960: Kennedy travels the country persuading various state delegates to support him. When the convention opens, Kennedy is still missing a few dozen votes to garner the nomination.
  • July 1960: Lyndon B. Johnson, and Adlai Stevenson II, officially announce their candidacies (working privately previously) the week before the convention. Adlai Stevenson hopes to receive the nomination, but after two failed campaigns, the party is looking for a “fresh face.”
  • July 1960: Liberals who would have supported Stevenson already are pledged to Kennedy by the time Stevenson announces his candidacy.
  • July 12, 1960: Johnson challenges Kennedy a televised debate before a joint meeting of the Texas and Massachusetts delegations, which Kennedy wins.  demonstrating Johnson was not viable beyond the South. “Senator Lyndon B. Johnson seized the headlines momentarily in what was widely regarded as a last-ditch bid to slow the bandwagon of Senator John F. Kennedy.” Johnson attempts to make Kennedy Absenteeism in the Senate an issue.
  • July 11-15, 1960: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena in Los Angeles, California. Leroy Collins (Florida) serves as chairman.  The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, John F. Kennedy (Massachusetts) for President and Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) for Vice President. Johnson is unable to collect enough delegate support with his negotiations; Kennedy had more delegate support going into the convention, but not enough to garner the nomination. There is a stop-Kennedy drive at the convention,  delegates consider Adlai Stevenson as a compromise candidate. Kennedy asks Johnson who had run against him to be his running mate.
  • July 14, 1960: Johnson accepts the Vice Presidency position on the ticket, and is unanimously nominated.
  • July 11-15, 1960: There is a controversy with the civil rights plank; Senator Sam J. Ervin Jr. of North Carolina wants to delete several portions, including the initiation of school desegregation 1963 deadline; Civil Rights Commission, permanent agency, attorney general’s power to file civil injunctions. Future member of Congress Patsy Mink of Hawaii gives a televised speech before the delegates in support. Senator Ervin’s motions are defeated.
  • July 15, 1960: Senator John F. Kennedy gives an address accepting the Democratic Party Nomination for the Presidency of the United States in Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles.
  • July 11-15, 1960: Norman Mailer attends the convention and writes his famous profile of Kennedy, “Superman Comes to the Supermart,” Esquire publishes the article.
  • July 1960: Nixon and Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York secretly met Rockefeller’s Manhattan apartment to devise the Republican platform “compact of Fifth Avenue”
  • July 25-28, 1960: Republican National Convention convenes at the International Amphitheatre, in Chicago, Illinois and nominates on the 1st ballot, Richard M. Nixon (California) for President, and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (Massachusetts) for Vice President. Nixon wins all but ten votes on the first ballot, and chooses Henry Cabot Lodge at his running-mate.
  • July 28, 1960: Richard Nixon gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Chicago.

 

  • Nixon pledged to campaign in all 50 states, in order to attract independents, Democrats; most grueling campaign schedule in history.
  • August 29, 1960: Vice President Nixon enters the Walter Reed Army Medical Center with a knee infection which keeps him hospitalized for two weeks. Although his advisors want him to abandon his 50 state pledge; he insists in continuing. All his campaign appearances, including a Labor Day engagement in New York, are canceled until the treatment is completed.
  • Main theme of the Democratic campaign is America’s “decline” under the Republican administration; attempted to undercut Nixon’s accusations that he was inexperienced. Stumping, over 200 television commercials
  • Nixon campaigns as a more experienced and known candidate, minimizes party labels in speeches, and emphasizes that voters should pick the pick the better man, Nixon forms ad hoc groups to manage advertisement, naming it Campaign Associates. Nixon campaigns as the more experienced candidate in domestic and foreign policies in comparison to Kennedy’s “youth and immaturity,” uses statements such as “After each of my foreign trips, I have made recommendations which were adopted.”….
  • August 24, 1960: President Eisenhower’s news conference on Domestic and Foreign Matters. “President Eisenhower undercuts Nixon’s experience claim when reporter Charles Mohr of Time asks the President during a press conference which major decision Nixon had been involved in and Eisenhower responded, “If you give me a week, I might think of one.” Eisenhower supposedly makes the comment as joke, but it is so damaging the Democrats used in a campaign commercial.
  • August 27, 1960: “By all normal standards, President Eisenhower pulled the political boner of the week when he said of Vice President Nixon that “he was not a part of decision-making” in the administration because “no one can make a decision except me.”” Nixon and His Chief claim the President is letting Nixon stake out his own positions.
  • 1960: Anti-Catholic tracts are circulated. Norman Vincent Peale, Nixon’s pastor condemns Kennedy on religious grounds, fueling that Kennedy is a victim of religious prejudice
  • September 12, 1960: John F. Kennedy gives a speech to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association in an attempt to diffuse the religion issue. The televised address reassures many Protestant voters, but did not completely extinguish the religion issue.
  • September 26, 1960: First Presidential Debate in Chicago: Kennedy wins the first debate. Kennedy appears just as confident, and the experienced equal to Vice President Nixon. Nixon campaigns up to a few hours prior to the telecast of the first debate, and still has not fully recovered, he looks pale, emaciated and with and stumble shows because he refuses to wear make-up. Kennedy in contrast rests prior to the debate and therefore appears more rested on camera. Kennedy speaks to the audience while Nixon addresses his opponent. The difference in appearances in the candidates affects the public’s perception. Those who watch the debate, name Kennedy the winner, while the radio audience albeit smaller names Nixon the winner.
  • October 7, 1960: Second Presidential Debate in Washington, DC, Nixon wins.  Nixon abides by the rules of television for the next debates (gained weight, rested, wore make-up), however, only a fraction of the amount of viewers watch the remaining debates. 70,000,000 view the first debate, but a combined total of approximately 50,000,000 watch the remaining three debates.
  • October 13, 1960: Third Presidential Debate Broadcast from New York and Los Angeles, Nixon won
  • Mid-October 1960: George Gallup predicts a close election, but refuses to forecast results. Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report though announce Kennedy would win by a good-sized margin.
  • October 19, 1960: Two days before the final debate between Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican candidate Vice President Richard Nixon, civil-rights leader Martin Luther King is arrested. King is jailed along with 52 other blacks who were trying to desegregate a Georgia restaurant. He is sentenced to four months of hard labor based on breaking probation. King’s wife, Coretta, franticly calls Harris Wofford, a Kennedy campaign aide, claiming that “they are going to kill him [King].” Wofford contacts Sargent Shriver, who is married to Kennedy’s sister Eunice. Shriver convinces Kennedy that he should telephone King’s wife, which he did, expressing his concern. Robert Kennedy, the candidate’s brother negotiates with the judge and secures a promise that King would be released on bail. In contrast, Nixon consults with Eisenhower’s attorney general, who advises him not to intervene in the matter. The Kennedys’ intervention gains JFK support from blacks, including King’s father, an influential minister who had previously supported Nixon.
  • October 21, 1960: Fourth Presidential Debate in New York, both candidates perform their strongest and it is considered a tie
  • October-November 1960: President Eisenhower, who had largely sat out the campaign, makes a vigorous campaign tour for Nixon over the last 10 days before the election. (Eisenhower’s support gave Nixon a badly needed boost, and by election day the polls indicated a virtual tie)
  • November 8, 1960: Just before midnight on election night, The New York Times headline their morning edition “Kennedy Elected President” The Times managing editor Turner Catledge writes in his memoirs that he hoped “a certain Midwestern mayor would steal enough votes to pull Kennedy through.”
  • November 9, 1960: Nixon made a speech at 3am, but did not entirely concede, was not a formal concession speech.
  • November 9, 1960: In the afternoon, Nixon gives a formal concession speech, and Kennedy claims victory. Republicans, Nixon and Eisenhower thought voter fraud is involved in the slim margin of victory, especially in Texas, Lyndon Johnson’s home state, and Illinois with Mayor Richard Daley’s powerful Chicago political machine. The electoral votes from those two states determine the outcome of the election.
  • November 10, 1960: Nixon’s campaign staff wants him to contest the election especially in the Illinois, Missouri and New Jersey contests.
  • November 13, 1960: Nixon gives a speech that he would not contest the election.
  • December 19, 1960: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes.
  • Summer 1961: Republican National Chairman, Senator Thruston Morton of Kentucky challenged the results in 11 states, which remained in the courts until summer of 1961, and resulted in a recount giving Hawaii over to Kennedy from Nixon’s column

 

 

 


1964

 

  • December 1961: Goldwater declares in a news conference “sometimes I think this country would be better off if we could just saw off the Eastern Seaboard and let it float out to sea”
  • 1961: Conservatives no longer wanted a Republican Presidential candidate that supported the New Deal a group led by F. Clifton White, former national chairman of the Young Republicans, met in Chicago set on nominating a conservative in 1964, their candidate of choice was Barry Goldwater;
  • 1963: Texas state party chairman Peter O’Donnell forms the National Draft Goldwater Committee
  • April 1963: First time in twelve years, the Republican Party field is open. New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller now represents the party’s Eastern moderates and Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater the conservative wing of the party; Rockefeller led all Republicans by 17 percentage points in an April 1963 Gallup Poll
  • May 1963: Republican Nelson Rockefeller remarries to a divorcee, which upsets public support for him as a candidate; in the next gallop poll, Goldwater assumes the lead by 5 points.
  • July 19, 1963: Stassen announces he will enter the Republican primaries.
  • August 27, 1963: Prohibition Party Convention convenes at the Pick Congress Hotel in Chicago Illinois with 72 delegates representing 19 states. The convention nominates E. Harold Munn (Mississippi) for President and Mark Shaw (Massachusetts) for Vice President.
  • November 22, 1963: Popular President John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald. Lyndon Baines Johnson succeeds as President; now the favorite candidate for the Democratic nomination
  • November 24, 1963: “Jack Ruby shoots and kills Lee Harvey Oswald.”
  • November 25, 1963: “Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.”
  • November 1963: Goldwater considers dropping out of the race for awhile, but finally gave his supporters the go-ahead; moratorium on Republican campaigning after the Kennedy assassination.
  • January 3, 1964: Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he will seek the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • January 8, 1964: “President Lyndon Johnson declares a “War on Poverty” in the United States in his first State-of-the-Union address.”
  • March 1964: George Gallup “the President is doing a fantastic job. We all thought that the honeymoon would last 30–45 days and then the polls would drop off sharply. But this has not been the case. The President still has a fantastically high national rating, and it looks like that rating is going to continue.”
  • 1964: Segregationist Governor of Alabama, George Wallace runs against Johnson in the primaries, fairs well in Maryland, Indiana, and Wisconsin against favorite son candidates.
  • 1964: Favorite sons win their states primaries. Sam Yorty, Mayor of Los Angeles was the exception he lost the California primary to Brown.
  • March 10, 1964: Henry Cabot Lodge, Ambassador to Vietnam wins the New Hampshire primary as a write–in over Rockefeller and Goldwater.
  • April 12, 1964: “The surprising total of over 260,000 votes — a fourth of that for both parties — polled in Wisconsin’s Presidential primary by Gov. George Wallace of Alabama in a civil rights challenge to the Administration last week caused wide comment.”
  • May 2, 1964: “Senator Barry Goldwater receives more than 75% of the votes in the Texas Republican Presidential primary.”
  • May 14, 1964?: Lodge loses Oregon Primary to Rockefeller, and then withdraws from the campaign.
  • May 19, 1964: Lodge announces that he is supporting Rockefeller for the nomination prior to the California primary. Lodge is forced into supporting Rockefeller.
  • May 22, 1964: “Governor Rockefeller said that if Senator Barry Goldwater wins the California primary there would not be sufficient moderate strength to stop him at the Republican National Convention.”
  • June 2, 1964: Goldwater wins the California primary by 51% to 49%, three days after Rockefeller’s wife gave birth, reminding the electorate of the adultery issues that plagued the Rockefeller campaign in 1963.
  • Moderate Republicans try to get William Scranton nominated instead of the Conservative Goldwater
  • Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Jersey primaries
  • Barry Goldwater: Illinois, Texas, Indiana; Nebraska (draft-Nixon movement)
  • Nelson Rockefeller: West Virginia, Oregon, several Northeastern state caucuses
  • William Scranton: several Northeastern state caucuses, Pennsylvania
  • ?May 22, 1964: Johnson gives a speech at the University of Michigan, announces his Great Society program.
  • July 2, 1964: “Johnson signs The Civil Rights Act of 1964.”
  • June 1964: Johnson had 74 percent approval rating and a 77 to 18 percent margin over Goldwater.
  • July 19, 1964: Governor George Wallace withdraws from the race for Democratic presidential nomination.  Alabama Governor George Wallace gives the first demonstration of white backlash with a surprisingly strong showing against three favorite sons in the North.
  • July 13-16, 1964: Republican National Convention convenes at Cow Palace in San Francisco, California and nominates on the 1st ballot, Barry M. Goldwater (Arizona) for President and William E. Miller, (New York) for Vice President.  There is bitter, animosity between the moderate and conservative factions, Goldwater conservatives dominate the convention, and attacks the moderates including Nelson Rockefeller during his speech. Goldwater chooses William Miller, a New York Congressman with similar views as his running-mate; “One reason I chose Miller is that he drives Johnson nuts.” Miller is the first Catholic nominated on the Republican ticket. The moderate faction of the Republican Party defects to the Democrats for the fall election, “Republicans for Johnson”
  • July 16, 1964: Barry Goldwater gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in San Francisco, “I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.”
  • August 8, 1964: Universal Party Convention convenes in Oakland California, and nominates, Kirby J. Hensley (California) for President, and John O. Hopkins (Iowa) for Vice President.
  • August 24-27, 1964: Democratic National Convention convenes at Convention Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey. John William McCormack (Massachusetts) serves as chairman. The convention nominates by acclamation Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) for President, and Hubert Humphrey (Minnesota) for Vice President. The only suspense at the convention centers on Johnson’s choice of a running mate, Johnson chooses liberal and civil rights supporter Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey.
  • August 26, 1964: The integrated Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) claims the delegate seats for Mississippi in protest, because the election of delegates by Jim Crow primary. Although the Liberals in the party want to divide equally the delegate seats, Johnson is concerned about losing the Southern vote entirely. A compromise with civil rights leaders; the MFDP would have two seats and the Mississippi delegate are required to support the party’s ticket, and no further convention would accept delegates where there was a Jim Crow primary. White delegates from Mississippi and Alabama refuse the compromise and leave the convention.
  • August 27, 1964: Robert Kennedy tries to force Johnson to accept him as his running-mate, which prompts Johnson to announce he would not choose any of his cabinet members as running mates; prompting Kennedy to resign from his post as Attorney General and for the Senate from New York; Johnson remains concerned Kennedy would use his speaking slot at the convention to gain support from the delegates to nominate him for Vice-President, to resolve the issue Johnson schedules Kennedy on the last night after the Vice-President nomination is decided
  • August 2, 4, 1964: Tonkin Gulf incident;
  • August 7, 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, bombing North Vietnam. “Congress passed a joint resolution (H.J. RES 1145), the Southeast Asia Resolution, President Johnson had approval “to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia  Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.””
  • August 30, 1964: Johnson signs the Economic Opportunity Act which creates Office of Economic Opportunity to combat the War on Poverty.
  • 1964: Goldwater emphasizes conservative principles; “Southern strategy”: carry the South states, because of his position on states’ rights, and refusal to endorse civil-rights legislation, as well as Northern “white backlash” vote, those tired of the riots in black neighborhoods in the large Eastern cities. Goldwater speaks too much off-the-cuff, never alters his speech to match the constituency he was speaking to, ends up with contradictions
  • 1964: Johnson focuses on being Chief Magistrate, getting his accomplishments in the newspaper headlines. Johnson’s emphasis on “consensus” continuing John F. Kennedy’s programs, policies.
  • 1964: Whistle-stop tour by the First Lady of the South States to gain support for Civil Rights; maintain the Democratic South
  • September 7, 1964: “Peace Little Girl (Daisy)” airs once, during the NBC Movie of the Week on. A young girl is seen picking daisies, when the narrating voices counts down to zero the images of the girl dissolves into an image of a nuclear mushroom. Demonstrates the danger of putting Goldwater in charge of the nuclear button; Republican Party objects to the ad, and it never airs again.
  • End of September, 1964:  Johnson embarks on a forty-two day stumping tour; 60,000 miles, two hundred speeches, motorcade, impromptu speeches through a handheld bullhorn, shake hands
  • Goldwater starts the campaign sounding too extreme. Later in the campaign, Goldwater tries to moderate his messages, and reassure voters he supports the U. N., Eisenhower’s foreign policy; does not want a war Russia, not against extending Social Security, and is for conscientiously administering civil rights.  Too late for his moderate tone, an impression had already been made with voters
  • Goldwater focuses on corruption in Washington, and “socialism.” He accuses on Johnson of amassing a fortune through devious means, and questions his association with Robert G. (“Bobby”) Baker, Billie Sol Estes, and Matt McCloskey all accused of (illegal?) business dealings. Johnson discloses an audit of his financial holdings.
  • October 14, 1964: LBJ aide Walter Jenkins is arrested for disorderly conduct in a Washington YMCA under compromising circumstances. Jenkins, who held the position of special assistant to the president, is not only a close and loyal staffer,  but a family friend. Johnson campaign advisors believe that the incident would cause problems for Johnson’s campaign, and that Johnson should distance himself from Jenkins, and campaign with his wife and daughters during the last two weeks of the campaign. Johnson immediately releases a statement that Jenkins has resigned from his position, but did not clarify what the position was. However, Johnson did not personally distance himself from Jenkins, offering Jenkins a position as the manager of the Johnson ranch, while the First Lady issues a statement.
  • October 14, 1964: Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate believes that the arrest gives him the ammunition he needs to make the case of moral decline. Americans want “clear and constant evidence of the highest morality” in their government.
  • Although no medical excuse could be found to cover the Jenkins story, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover decides to intervene, claiming that Barry Goldwater and his campaign had actually set-up Jenkins as part of a “Republican plot” to bring down Johnson. Hoover makes this connection because Jenkins had served in the same Air Force unit, which was commanded by Goldwater. In order to legitimize his claims, Hoover conducts an elaborate investigation. The Jenkins issue however, disappears from the newspapers within days, and was eclipsed by foreign policy issues. The Jenkins issue became irrelevant in the campaign.
  • October 14-15, 1964: The Moscow politburo overthrows Nikita Khrushchev. Leonid Brezhnev assumes power.
  • October 16, 1964: Communist China successfully tests its first nuclear device
  • October 27, 1964: Ronald Reagan gives primetime televised campaign address   “A Time For Choosing” for Goldwater’s Presidential Campaign.
  • October 31, 1964: John pledges to create the Great Society in an address at a Madison Square Garden, New York, campaign rally.
  • November 4, 1964: Election Day, Democrats Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President, and Hubert Humphrey is elected Vice President. Johnson carries the South as a whole in the election, but loses Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina.
  • December 14, 1964: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitals.

 


1968

 

  • July 28, 1965: Johnson escalates the number of troops sent to Vietnam for the upcoming ground war.
  • July 30, 1965: Johnson signs Medicare and Medicaid into law.
  • August 5, 1965: “Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act.”
  • August 11-16, 1965: Watts Riots in Los Angeles
  • June 29, 1967: Prohibition Party Convention nominates E. Harold Munn for President.
  • July 13, 1967: Newark, New Jersey riots.
  • July 23, 1967: Detroit, Michigan riots.
  • October 21, 1967: Anti-war demonstrators March to the Pentagon, want to shut down Pentagon.
  • January 4, 1968: “Governor Rockefeller of New York tells a group of New Hampshire Republicans that the moderates of the party had a rare opportunity to unite behind Gov. George Romney of Michigan as their nominee for President this year.” George Romney a Mormon, is an early front-runner, he claims he “originally supported Johnson’s Vietnam policy because he had been “brainwashed” by government briefing officers.”
  • January 31, 1968: North Vietnamese launch the Tet offensive at Nha Trang. The US embassy in Saigon is invaded and held until 9:15AM.
  • February 2, 1968: Richard Nixon announces he is entering the Republican Presidential nomination race, enters the New Hampshire primary. Since his 1962 defeat for the California governorship, Richard Nixon gains support and friendships with Republican Party leaders, he campaigns in the 1966 mid-term elections for Republican candidates, becoming the front-runner. He wins all the early primaries.
  • February 8, 1968: George Wallace announces he is entering the presidential race as an independent.
  • February 18, 1968: The U.S. State Department announces that 543 Americans have been killed in action, and 2547 have been wounded, highest casualty toll of the war.
  • February 28, 1968: Governor George Romney gives a news conference in Washington to announce his is withdrawing from the Republican Presidential nomination race because of public ridicule, and the public’s fear of his religion.
  • Governor Rockefeller will meet here today with top-ranking Republicans from many parts of the country “to exchange views on the situation in the party” following Gov. George Romney’s withdrawal from the Presidential race.
  • March 12, 1968: New Hampshire primary: Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy almost wins against Johnson in an upset, comes in second with 230 votes less than President Lyndon Johnson. McCarthy enters the race to challenge President Johnson for the nomination; critic of the Vietnam war, with youth support and volunteers; “Children’s Crusade”. His youthful supporter get “Clean for Gene” to contact conservative voters in New Hampshire.
  • March 16, 1968: New York Senator Robert Kennedy enters the Presidential race four days after the New Hampshire primary in opposition to Vietnam and Johnson, but in “in harmony with McCarthy”
  • March 31, 1968: President Lyndon Johnson’s gives a televised address announcing steps to limit the War in Vietnam, and Johnson announces at the end his televised address that he is not seeking reelection.
  • April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • April 1968: Riots burst out in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City, Newark, Washington, D.C. after King’s assassination resulting 46 deaths.
  • April 6, 1968: “Governor Rockefeller and his supporters have been re-emphasizing his availability for the Presidential nomination in the face of the widespread public impression that he is reluctant to run.”  (NYT)
  • April 1968: Ronald Reagan, the conservative candidate does not commit to running beyond a favorite son campaign.
  • ?March 1968: Nelson Rockefeller announces in a press conference he will not run for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • Rockefeller and Reagan enter the race too late, Nixon accumulates enough delegate support to clinch the nomination on the first ballot
  • Hubert Humphrey decides to enter the race for the nomination “the politics of joy”, he was too late to enter the primaries, but gathers enough delegate support from “behind the scenes”; Johnson helps Humphrey garner the delegates for the nomination
  • May 3, 1968: US and the North Vietnamese agree to peace talks in Paris.
  • May 7, 1968: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Henning A. Blomen for President.
  • May 8, 1968: Indiana primary; Senator Robert F. Kennedy wins his first Presidential primary.
  • May 15, 1968: Senator Robert Kennedy wins the Nebraska primary with 60% of Farm Bloc. Kennedy’s advisers said the Nebraska primary results demonstrate that their candidate had the breadth of appeal needed for a national campaign. (NYT)
  • May 23, 1968: Gov. Ronald Reagan drops that ‘ I Am Not a Candidate’ stance on his tour of 7,000 miles through five states over four days.
  • May 28, 1968: Eugene McCarthy wins the crucial Oregon primary.
  • June 1, 1968: “Vice President Humphrey is the clear choice of the nation’s Democratic county chairmen for the 1968 Presidential nomination, according to the Gallup Poll.” (NYT)
  • June 4, 5, 1968: Robert Kennedy wins the California Primary; narrowly defeats Eugene McCarthy 46%–42%. Kennedy addresses supporters at the Ambassador Hotel and is shot by Sirhan Sirhan at 12:13AM when he is leaving the stage.
  • June 6, 1968: Robert F. Kennedy dies from his wounds.
  • July 7, 1968: Communist Party Convention nominates Charlene Mitchell for President.
  • August 5-8, 1968: Republican National Convention convenes at the Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida and nominates on the 1st ballot Richard M. Nixon (California) for President, and Spiro T. Agnew (Maryland) for Vice President. Nixon wins the nomination on the first ballot against Nelson Rockefeller and Ronald Reagan, and chooses Governor Spiro T. Agnew of Maryland, unknown (“Spiro Who?”) as his running mate to appeal to the border states and Deep South.
  • August 8, 1968: Richard Nixon gives his acceptance of the Republican Party Nomination for President.
  • August 5-8, 1968: Reverend Ralph D. Abernathy’s (president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference) the Poor People’s Campaign demonstrates outside the convention hall.
  • August 18, 1968: Peace & Freedom Party Convention nominates Eldridge Cleaver for President.
  • August 28, 1968: Socialist Workers Party Convention nominated Frederick W. Halstead
  • August 26-29, 1968: Democratic National Convention convenes at the International Amphitheatre, in Chicago, Illinois. Carl Albert (Oklahoma) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, Hubert Humphrey (Minnesota) for President, and Edmund S. Muskie (Maine) for Vice President. Party leaders supported Hubert Humphrey’s nomination. After Robert Kennedy’s assassination, McCarthy loses interest in the nomination. McCarthy supporters back South Dakota Senator George McGovern; Kennedy supporters want to draft his brother, Massachusetts Senator Edward Kennedy, who did not want to be drafted so soon after his brother’s death. National Mobilization Committee To End the War in Viet Nam, Antiwar protesters at the Chicago conventions.
  • August 28, 1968: Bloody Wednesday, protests outside the convention hall develops in a confrontation with police, and violence erupts.
  • August 26-29, 1968: Divisions between hawks and doves in the party; fights over delegate credentials; fights close to anarchy over procedure and platform votes; walk-outs
  • August 26-29, 1968: There is a debate over the platform and the nomination process, especially the “unit rule” where the majority of the delegates determined the entire vote of a delegation. McCarthy supporters want this century old rule abolished, denies minorities a voice. Humphrey has supported the concept, motion is approved to abolish it. Allowed a few Southern delegations whose credentials are questioned to be seated including voting rights activist and civil rights leader Fannie Lou Hamer Mississippi Democratic loyalist group.
  • August 28, 1968: Connecticut Senator Abraham Ribicoff is heckled throughout his speech after condemning the Chicago police’s actions against the protesters
  • August 29, 1968: Thursday night, after a Robert Kennedy memorial film is shown, Daley supporters chant, “We love Mayor Daley!” and the delegates on the convention floor sing the “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.”
  • Republican Party is united and runs an efficient campaign staff, scheduling, money, newspaper support. Nixon campaigns only in crucial states, major addresses, makes use of television to address voters; question-and-answer sessions, appeared statesman like and calm, refuses to debate Humphrey. Spoke in general terms about the issues and Vietnam (not to jeopardize Paris negotiations), links Humphrey to the national unrest/violence/protests
  • September 1, 1968: Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey launches his campaign at New York City’s Labor Day parade.  Democratic Party, no money, no organization, until Lawrence O’Brien appointed chairman of the Democratic national committee, no campaign schedule. Humphrey at first was eight to ten percentage points behind Nixon in the polls, and is heckled everywhere he goes to speak
  • Spiro Agnew is a sharp contrast to Nixon, verbal slips, misinformation and constantly had to issues apologies, retractions, and explanations for his gaffes “APOLOGIZE NOW, SPIRO, IT WILL SAVE TIME LATER.”
  • September 12, 1968: “Gov. Spiro T. Agnew of Maryland took back today his charge that Hubert H. Humphrey was “soft on Communism.” (NYT)
  • September 20, 1968: “With ever more bite and passion, Vice President Humphrey pursues Richard M. Nixon across mid-America today, exhorting his rival to join in direct debate and bitterly accusing him of compromise and evasion on all issues, especially human rights.” (NYT)
  • September 25, 1968:  Humphrey trails in the polls, until he breaks with Johnson on Vietnam, announcing he support of Vietnam bombing halt;
  • September 30, 1968: Hubert Humphrey announces in Salt Lake City in nationwide telecast: “As President, I would stop the bombing of the North as an acceptable risk for peace because I believe it could lead to success in the negotiations and thereby shorten the war.” Increased anti-war Democrat/liberal support for Humphrey after the announcement; “If you mean it, we’re with you!” signs of support.
  • October 3, 1968: George Wallace, independent campaign for the presidency names his running mate at a news conference: “I think most military men think it’s just another weapon in the arsenal… I think there are many times when it would be most efficient to use nuclear weapons. … I don’t believe the world would end if we exploded a nuclear weapon.” George Wallace, Nixon’s greatest competition for Southern votes, running also on  integration and law and order, Competition as for Humphrey and mid –western blue-collar workers Wallace’s running mate, Air Force General Curtis LeMay (“Old Ironpants”) outlandish comments, ramblings
  • October 10, 1968: “Senator Edmund S. Muskie asserts that Richard M. Nixon was unqualified to serve as President because he did not trust the American people to judge a debate between the three national candidates.” (NYT)
  • October 10, 1968: “Vice President Humphrey rides  through the artificial storms of Wall Street confetti and around the turmoil in his New York political organization. All the while he promotes Senator Edmund S. Muskie as his “greatest asset” and maps new ways to force Richard M. Nixon into televised debates.” (NYT)
  • October 13, 1968: “Vice President Humphrey sent telegrams today to Richard M. Nixon and George C. Wallace saying he had reserved an hour’s time on the Columbia Broadcasting system next Sunday from 10 to 11 P.M. for a three-way debate.” (NYT)
  • McCarthy, Senator Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts, National board of the Americans for Democratic Action, and organized labor endorses Hubert Humphrey, then Humphrey’s campaign fundraising increases. Humphrey becomes the peace candidate.
  • Humphrey closes in on Nixon at the polls
  • October 14, 1968: “With a new and probably final burst of political energy, Hubert H. Humphrey set out to prove that his campaign was “coming alive” at last and that Richard M. Nixon could still be overtaken in a tight race over the next three weeks.” (NYT)
  • October 23, 1968: “The Columbia Broadcasting System send telegrams to Vice President Humphrey and Richard M. Nixon, inviting them to appear jointly in one-hour debate from 9 to 10 P.M. next Sunday.:
  • October 25, 1968: Nixon accuses Johnson of planning a bombing halt to salvage Humphrey’s candidacy
  • October 26, 1968: “Gov. Spiro T. Agnew tells noisy student hecklers Cupertino, California that if they did not like their country they should get out.” (NYT)
  • October 1968:  President Lyndon Johnson was attempting to reach an agreement with the North Vietnamese in the Paris peace talks. This would allow him to halt the bombing which would salvage Vice President and Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey’s campaign. The Republican candidate Richard Nixon realized that Johnson was attempting to use the power of the presidency to help Humphrey, and accused him of doing so. Johnson denounced such claims as “ugly and unfair.”
  • October 28, 1968: Humphrey misses the signals in the campaign, an observer sees that the Republican Party has a good chance to win, and the Republican are  hopeful for a victory.
  • October 31, 1968: Five days before the election on President Johnson announces a halt in the bombing of North Vietnam, a move that ties Humphrey and Nixon at the polls a week before the election. The bombing halt allows many people to conclude that the end of the war might be approaching, putting Humphrey in a favorable position.
  • Humphrey went up in the polls, but when the South Vietnamese government indicates it will not negotiate, Humphrey’s ratings again slid.
  • November 5, 1968: Election Day, Republicans Richard M. Nixon is elected President and Spiro Agnew is elected Vice President.
  • December 16, 1968: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.

 

 


1972

 

  • June 8, 1969: “Nixon announces he will withdraw 25,000 U.S. troops from South Vietnam by August 31.”
  • July 25, 1969: “Nixon declares his support of continual withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, and for nations to take responsibilities in the own national security concept becomes the “Nixon Doctrine.” Includes plans for a “Vietnamization” of the Vietnam War.”
  • July 19, 1969: “Edward Kennedy accidentally drove his car off a bridge in Chappaquiddick, Massachusetts, into the water and his passenger Mary Jo Kopechne and his car where found in tidal channel after Kennedy abandons the scene, Senator Tells the Police He Wandered About in Shock After Car Ran Off Bridge Near Martha’s Vineyard.
  • he receives a suspended sentence.”
  • October 7, 1970: “In a televised address, Nixon proposes a five-point peace plan for Indochina. The plan includes a “cease-fire in place” and the negotiated withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam.”
  • October 29, 1970: “While at a campaign rally in California, demonstrators taunt Nixon and throw objects at him.”
  • 1971: Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971
  • January 1971: “Edward Kennedy, possible front-runner Presidential for the Democratic nomination Announced he would not run early from consideration, after the Chappaquiddick incident.”
  • January 1971: George McGovern a dark horse enters the Democratic Presidential race and becomes the frontrunner with his “Come Home, America” anti-war primary campaign. He supports the war protests, and the minority groups who see  him as a leader of their causes.
  • McGovern intends to benefit from new primary system rules he helped shape. He has support in the primaries from the anti-war constituency, gains the nomination, then the party leaders would support his candidacy in the general election, however they did not.
  • June 13, 1971: “The New York Times begins to publish secret internal documents referred to as the “Pentagon Papers,” a development which leads the White House become increasingly fearful of further disclosures. Within a week, a special unit named the “Plumbers” is created to stop the leaks.”
  • July 15, 1971: “Nixon shocks the nation with the news that he plans to visit China within the next year.”
  • January 7, 1972: “Nixon announces that he will seek another term in office.”
  • January 24, 1972: Iowa caucus, Democrat Muskie wins, McGovern does well in first race where Iowa is of importance in the nomination process.
  • February 21-27, 1972: Nixon’s first Presidential trip to Communist China. “President and Mrs. Nixon arrive in China. A joint communique, later known as the Shanghai Communique, is released by the United States and China. It calls for both countries agree to increase their contacts, and for the United States to withdraw gradually from Taiwan.”
  • February 18, 1972: Communist Party National Convention nominates Gus Hall for President.
  • February 28, 1972: “Nixon addresses the nation via television to discuss his trip to China.”
  • March 7, 1972: New Hampshire primary, Democrat Muskie still ahead
  • March 14, 1972: Florida primary, Democrat Wallace wins.
  • March 16, 1972: “Nixon dismisses busing as a means of achieving racial integration and seeks legislation that would deny court-ordered busing.”
  • March 21, 1972: Illinois primary, Democrat Muskie wins.
  • March 1972: “Canuck Letter” is published in the Manchester Union-Leader. Claimed Muskie has insulting comments about French-Canadians. The paper attack Muskie’s wife Jane, claims she drank and swore.
  • March 1972: Muskie who seems calm and even tempered throughout the 1968 campaign, unleashes his temper to the publisher who attacked his wife in front of their offices in New Hampshire during a snowstorm. Muskie claims what appears as tears was actually snow flakes. His display of emotions turn off the voters, because it demonstrates instability.
  • April 4, 1972: Wisconsin Primary, McGovern wins close race over Humphrey and Wallace.
  • April 11, 1972: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Louis Fisher for President.
  • April 25, 1972: Massachusetts Primary, Humphrey wins; Pennsylvania primary.
  • May 2, 1972: Washington DC primary, Democrats, Indiana, Ohio primaries.
  • May 4, 1972: Tennessee primary
  • May 6, 1972: North Carolina primary
  • May 8, 1972: On national television, Nixon states that he has ordered the mining of North Vietnamese ports and the bombing of military targets in the North Vietnam.
  • May 9, 1972: Nebraska, West Virginia primaries
  • May 15 1972: There is an assassination attempt on George Wallace, and Wallace is paralyzed from the waist down. George Wallace “Send Them a Message” populist campaign, wins five primaries.
  • May 16, 1972: Maryland, Michigan primary, Democrat Wallace wins both.
  • May 22, 1972: Nixon’s Presidential trip to Moscow. “Nixon arrives in the Soviet Union for a summit meeting. He is the first sitting President to visit the U.S.S.R.”
  • May 23, 1972: Oregon, Rhode Island primaries.
  • Humphrey wins four primaries, but lost decisive Wisconsin and California
  • May 26, 1972: Strategic arms-limitations talks (SALT) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with USSR
  • June 6, 1972: California, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota [McGovern over Humphrey in California]
  • June 17, 1972: There is a break-in in the Watergate Complex at the McGovern/Democratic campaign headquarters. The incident is largely ignored through the campaign. “Police seize James McCord, Frank Sturgis, and three Cubans inside Democratic Headquarters in Washington, D.C.’s Watergate Hotel. They confiscate cameras, wiretapping materials, and $2,300 in cash.”
  • June 23, 1972: “Nixon orders Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman to tell the F.B.I. not to go any further with its Watergate investigation, justifying his actions on national security grounds.”
  • July 10-13, 1972: Democratic National Convention convenes in the Convention Center at Miami Beach, Florida. Lawrence F. O’Brien (Massachusetts) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on 1st ballot, George S. McGovern (South Dakota) for President, Thomas F. Eagleton (Missouri) for Vice President. Democrat’s thirty hours convention is televised to the nation. McGovern ensures female and minority participation by opening up the nominating process. Hostile delegates debate over seating the California delegation, and regular party leaders feel marginalized, many ended up supporting Nixon. There is backlash against McGovern. The Vice Presidential vote is chaotic, there were three front running candidates, however, the votes scattered over 70 candidates. The vote lasts until 3AM local time; although McGovern’s choice Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri wins the Vice Presidential nomination on the first ballot.
  • July 14, 1972: George McGovern gives his address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, Appeared too liberal to televised audiences, very liberal platform; although McGovern was more moderate than the convention appeared although his acceptance speech was telecast too much after primetime, at 3AM
  • July 25, 1972: Eagleton announces he had mental health issues and that he had suffered from “nervous exhaustion and fatigue,” and “depression” which required electric-shock treatment on two visits, and he had been voluntarily hospitalized three times from 1960 to 1966. he had concealed his health issues from McGovern.
  • July 31, 1972: Senators George McGovern and Thomas F. Eagleton give a news conference on Senator Eagleton’s withdrawal as the Vice-Presidential nominee.
  • July 31, 1972: “Letters, telegrams and phone calls flood into Washington, which strongly supports Senator Thomas F. Eagleton and urges Senator George McGovern -vainly, it turned out — to keep him on the Democratic ticket.”
  • July 30, 1972: People’s Party Convention nominates Benjamin Spock for President and Julius Hobson for Vice President.
  • The Libertarian Party nominates John Hospers for President, and for Theodora Nathalia Nathan Vice President (first woman to receive an electoral vote). The  Newly formed Libertarian Party is on the ballot in Colorado only, received 3,573, no states, received vote from defected Republican elector in Virginia.
  • August 5, 1972: American Party Convention nominates John G. Schmitz for President. He is Republican Representative and conservative candidate. Party is  on the ballot in 32 states 1,099,482 votes, no state, majority, no electoral votes
  • Socialist Workers Party nominates Linda Jenness for President and Andrew Pulley for Vice President.
  • August 1972: Discovery Democratic Vice Presidential nominee Eagleton underwent electric shock therapy; McGovern claimed to back Eageton “1000 percent”; however, senior staff, party leaders, and editorial writers pressured McGovern to drop Eagleton from the ticket and he requested withdrawal three days later; McGovern appeared indecisive, criticized for dropping Eagleton after his original support, either way McGovern’s decision would have been criticized
  • August 8, 1972: “The Democratic National Committee nominates Sargent Shriver to replace Senator Thomas F. Eagleton as the party’s candidate for Vice President.” “National Committee ratifies McGovern’s selection as successor to Eagleton. The theme is party’s unity, the tally is nearly unanimous, Shriver accepts the nomination with ‘Gratitude and Joy’. The Democratic Committee backs choice of Shriver for second place.” (NYT) Search for a new Vice Presidential candidate, six Democrats refused the nomination until Sargent Shriver, former Ambassador to France and former Director of the Peace Corps accepted. Shriver received the official nomination at a special session of the Democratic National Committee
  • August 21-23, 1972: Republican National Convention convenes at the Convention Center in Miami Beach Florida and renominates on 1st ballot, Richard M. Nixon (California) for President and Spiro T. Agnew (Maryland) for Vice President. The convention is staged managed to benefit from television coverage. There are five sessions which  take place over seventeen hours. Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew renominated on the first ballot; 1976 apportionment of delegates debate; Texas Senator John G. Tower and New York Representative Jack F. Kemp proposes awarding bonus delegates (based on a state’s presidential vote); Wisconsin Representative William A. Steiger ties the delegates award to congressional and gubernatorial elections; Tower and Kemp plan approved, 910 to 434 on roll call vote
  • August 21-23, 1972: Seven members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War conspire to disrupt the Republican convention
  • August 29, 1972: “In a news conference, Nixon declares that no one on the White House staff, in the administration, or anyone “presently employed” was involved in the Watergate break-in.”
  • Fall 1972: Nixon’s reelection campaign is “The most restrained campaign of his career.” Nixon runs as a bold world leader. His staffers, Congressmen, and cabinet members are his “presidential surrogates” on the campaign trail. The campaign is organized. Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP, or, CREEP), independent organization to garner funds and votes, and discredit McGovern; Nixon does not necessarily need to campaign. CRP conducts fundraising for a campaign. The campaign uses the Southern strategy, by winning Southern states.  The campaign will show opposition to desegregation (busing) and Civil Rights, and willingness to combat the New Left, Vietnam protests, counterculture, and portray McGovern as a radical.
  • McGovern has an improvised campaign organization; Eagleton and early primary policies alienate many Democrats, voters and influential party leaders who would have campaigned on his behalf.
  • Discovery Democratic Vice Presidential nominee Eagleton underwent electric shock therapy; McGovern claimed to back Eageton “1000 percent”; however, senior staff, party leaders, and editorial writers pressured McGovern to drop Eagleton from the ticket and he requested withdrawal three days later; McGovern appeared indecisive, criticized for dropping Eagleton after his original support, either way McGovern’s decision would have been criticized
  • McGovern’s poll ratings plunged 41% to 24%; Nixon led in the polls throughout the campaign among all demographics
  • AFL-CIO decides it would not support McGovern and the Democrats, although some unions endorse McGovern; AFL-CIO head George Meany announces “McGovern was not “good material” and charged that a “small elite of suburban types and students took over the apparatus of the Democratic party.””
  • October 1972: Campaigned actively towards the end; attacked busing and permissiveness, criticized McGovern’s foreign policy proposals as a danger to the country
  • October 1972: In the weeks, leading up to the end of the campaign Nixon suspends bombing in Vietnam and engages in secret negotiations with the National Liberation Front.
  • October 20, 1972: “Nixon endorses a bill which calls for revenue sharing with the states and grants over $30 billion to state and local governments over the course of five years.”
  • October 21, 1972: “Nixon enhances the power of the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the sale and use of pesticides.”
  • October 26, 1972: Just before the election at a press conference, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger Secretary of State Henry Kissinger announces Peace with honor with regard to cease-fire with Vietnam, Kissinger’s announcement convinces many voters that the Vietnam War would soon be over.
  • October 30, 1972: “Nixon signs sixty bills, one of which provides more than $5 billion in benefits for the aged, blind, and disabled, while also increasing Social Security taxes.”
  • November 7, 1972: Election Day; Republicans Richard M. Nixon is reelected President and Spiro Agnew reelected is Vice President.
  • December 18, 1972: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitals.

 

 


1976

 

  • 1973-1974: Watergate Scandal
  • April 30, 1973: “Nixon admits responsibility for the Watergate affair on television, but continues to assert no prior knowledge of it.”
  • August 7-8, 1973: “Vice President Agnew comes under scrutiny for charges stemming from campaign contributions he received while in office from persons who were later given government contracts. Agnew vehemently denies the charges in a press conference.”
  • October 10, 1973: “Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns and pleads “no contest” to charges stemming from a kickback scheme he ran while Governor of Maryland. Agnew is fined $10,000 and sentenced to three years probation.”
  • October 11, 1973: “President Richard Nixon offers Gerald Ford the nomination for vice president. Ford accepts.”
  • October 12, 1973: “Gerald Ford is nominated as vice president. After being confirmation by Congress.”
  • December 6, 1973: “Ford is sworn in as vice president in the House chamber. Ford remarks that he is a “Ford, not a Lincoln.””
  • July 27-30, 1974: “Three articles of impeachment are brought against Nixon by the House Judiciary Committee: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and the unconstitutional defiance of its subpoenas.”
  • August 5, 1974: “Three new transcripts are released, showing that Nixon ordered a cover-up less than a week after the break-in. Nixon issues a statement with the transcripts indicating that he withheld this evidence from his lawyers and from those who support him on the Judiciary Committee.”
  • August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns from the presidency, effective at noon the next day, in a televised address.
  • August 9, 1974: Gerald Ford succeeds as President.
  • September 8, 1974: Gerald Ford pardons former President Richard Nixon in a nationally telecast speech.
  • Forced desegregation (busing)
  • October 10, 1974: “General George S. Brown, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman made anti-Israel comments; ‘Israel Lobby’ Has Too Much Influence in Washington; Criticizes ‘Israel Lobby’ at a speech at Duke University Law School forum.”
  • October 15, 1974: “Ford signs the Federal Elections Campaign Act of 1974, the most significant attempt at campaign finance reform since the 1920s.”
  • November 5, 1974: Mid term election: Democrats “gain 43 House seats and 3 Senate seats, giving them a majority in both Houses of Congress. They also gain 4 governorships.”
  • December 19, 1974: “By a vote of 287-128, the House confirms Nelson A. Rockefeller as vice president; he is later sworn into office.”
  • 1974-1975: Democrat Jimmy Carter spends two years traveling the country “meeting people, shaking hands, delivering speeches, appearing on local television, and getting to know reporters and editors.”
  • June 27, 1975: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Benjamin C. Bubar for President.
  • June 29, 1975: Communist Party National Convention nominates Gus Hall for President.
  • August 31, 1975: Libertarian Party Convention nominates Roger L. MacBride for President.
  • August 31, 1975: People’s Party Convention nominates Margaret Wright for President
  • September 1, 1975: Socialist Party Convention nominates Frank P. Zeidler for President.
  • September 5, 1975: “Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme attempts to assassinate President Ford in San Francisco.”
  • November 4, 1975: “Rockefeller withdraws his name for consideration for the vice presidency in the 1976 presidential election.”
  • November 8, 1975: Ronald Reagan enters the Presidential campaign challenging President Ford for the nomination. “Ronald Reagan, moves toward an open challenge to Gerald R. Ford for the Republican Presidential nomination, will mount a campaign aimed at quickly undercutting the psychological advantage that an incumbent President brings to any political contest.”
  • November 20, 1975: “Former California governor Ronald Reagan announces that he will challenge Ford for the Republican nomination for President.”
  • Ford wins sixteen primaries, early primaries; collects wavering delegates; paints Reagan as an extremist, who should not be trusted with nuclear power.
  • Reagan wins ten primaries, Southern and Western states, leads in delegate count entering the convention; accuses Ford of negotiating the transfer of the Panama Canal
  • January 19, 1976: Iowa caucuses (both parties) Iowa caucus Democratic [Carter rises into public eye with strong showing; more attention paid to Iowa] Iowa straw poll Republican [Ford narrow win in contest with few votes] Jimmy Carter went from unknown to front runner, won: Iowa caucus; New Hampshire primary over Washington “insiders”; Florida, North Carolina,
  • January 24, 1976:: Mississippi Democratic caucuses
  • January 27, 1976:: Hawaii Republican caucuses
  • February: Maine Democratic caucuses (all month long)
  • February 4-March 6, 1976:: Wyoming Republican caucuses
  • February 7, 1976:: Oklahoma Democratic caucuses
  • February 10, 1976: Alaska Democratic caucuses
  • February 11, 1976: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Jules Levin for President.
  • February 24, 1976: Minnesota caucuses (both parties), New Hampshire Primary, Democratic, Carter wins Republican, Ford wins close race. Ford beats Ronald Reagan in the New Hampshire primary, winning 51 percent of the vote.
  • February 28: South Carolina Democratic caucuses
  • March 1, 1976: “Under pressure from Reagan and more conservative Republicans, Ford agrees not to use the word “détente.””
  • March 2, 1976: Massachusetts primary, Vermont primary (beauty contest–no delegates at stake), Washington caucuses (both parties) Massachusetts, Vermont primaries
  • March 9, 1976: Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Florida Primary Democratic [Carter beats Wallace in a state Wallace had counted on before]
  • March 12-13, 1976: South Carolina Republican caucuses (through March 13)
  • March 14, 1976: Wyoming Democratic caucuses
  • March 16, 1976: Illinois primary, Democratic [Carter wins] Republican [Ford winning streak in primaries]
  • March 19, 1976:: Kansas Republican caucuses
  • March 23, 1976: Connecticut Republican caucuses, North Carolina primary North Carolina Democratic [Carter won North Carolina primary over Alabama Governor George Wallace, who withdraws from the race] Republican [First Reagan primary win]
  • March 27, 1976: Mississippi Republican caucuses
  • March 29, 1976: Maine Republican caucuses
  • April 3, 1976: Kansas Democratic caucuses, Virginia Democratic caucuses
  • April 5, 1976: Oklahoma Republican caucuses
  • April 6, 1976: New York primary, Wisconsin primary Wisconsin Primary, Carter wins over Udall by 1% Arizona Congressman Morris Udall close in primaries after Carter’s lead
  • April 19, 1976: Missouri Republican caucuses (through April 24)
  • April 20, 1976: Missouri Democratic caucuses
  • April 22, 1976: New Mexico Democratic caucuses
  • April 24, 1976: Arizona Democratic caucuses/Republican convention, Vermont caucuses (both parties)
  • April 25, 1976: New Mexico Republican caucuses (through May 1)
  • April 27, 1976: North Dakota Democratic caucuses, Pennsylvania Primary, Democratic [Carter won Pennsylvania primary over Washington Senator Henry Jackson]
  • April 27, 1976: “Jimmy Carter speaks of healing and uniting the Democratic party. He seemed to share the sense among his top staff and cheering supporters that the Pennsylvania primary has almost sealed his Presidential nomination.” (NYT)
  • April 29, 1976: “Jimmy Carter and Hubert H. Humphrey, to whom the Democratic Presidential race has apparently narrowed, have never confronted each other in a primary election. But if they had, New York Times/CBS News polls indicate, they would have attracted voters from two very different groups within the party’s rank and file.” (NYT)
  • May 1, 1976: Louisiana Democratic caucuses, North Dakota Republican caucuses (lasts through June 14), Texas primary
  • May 3, 1976: Colorado caucuses (both parties)
  • May 4, 1976: Alabama primary, Georgia primary, Indiana primary. Washington DC (Democrats), Georgia, Indiana primaries
  • May 8: Louisiana Republican caucuses (through May 15)
  • May 11, 1976: Connecticut Democratic caucuses; Nebraska primary; West Virginia primary; Nebraska primary. Idaho Senator Frank Church Church wins over Carter in Nebraska.
  • May 14-15, 1976: Virginia Republican caucuses
  • May 17, 1976: Utah caucuses (both parties)
  • May 18, 1976: Maryland primary; Michigan primary. In Michigan Carter wins Udall by less than 1%.
  • May 18, 1976: “Ford approves congressional revisions in the Federal Elections Commission and Federal Election Campaign Act to permit resumption of federal check-off subsidies for all presidential campaigns.”
  • May 22: Alaska Republican caucuses
  • May 25, 1976: Arkansas primary, Idaho primary, Kentucky primary, Nevada primary, Oregon primary, Tennessee primary, Tennessee Democratic. Church takes Oregon, Idaho and Brown Nevada, but Carter wins in the South and the  divided opposition can’t catch up with him.
  • June 1, 1976: Montana primary (Democrats only, Republican beauty contest–no delegates at stake), Rhode Island primary, South Dakota primary
  • June 8, 1976: California primary, New Jersey primary, Ohio primary Extremely close race in Ohio between Reagan and Ford, once caucus results are included the delegate totals are more even than any other convention.
  • June 11, 1976: Delaware Democratic convention.
  • June 19, 1976: Delaware Republican convention.
  • June 20, 1976: American Independent Convention nominates Thomas Jefferson “Tom” Anderson for President.
  • June 26, 1976: Montana Republican convention
  • July 4, 1976: President Ford presides over the televised Washington, D.C. fireworks display for the Bicentennial Fourth of July. “President Ford speaks at Valley Forge and Independence Hall.” Part of Ford’s “Rose Garden” strategy of ceremonial, patriotic, and high profile presidential events; tested, national leader; hold occasional press conferences
  • July 7, 1976: “President Ford and the First Lady hosts British Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip at a White House state dinner, televised on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) network.”
  • July 12-15, 1976: Democratic National Convention convenes at Madison Square Garden, in New York. Lindy Boggs, (Louisiana) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, Jimmy Carter (Georgia) for President, and Walter Mondale (Minnesota) for Vice President. Jimmy Carter is the dark horse candidate prior to the convention; he amasses more than the majority 1,054 votes needed for the nomination. Carter wants to be perceived as a unity candidate; George Wallace, Coretta Scott King and other prominent African-Americans, join  Carter on the victory platform before a televised broadcast. Carter chooses Senator Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota, an “insider” as his running mate.  Mondale won on the first ballot, House Speaker Carl Albert of Oklahoma and Representative Barbara C. Jordan of Texas also received votes
  • July 15, 1976: Jimmy Carter gives an address “Our Nation’s Past and Future” accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in New York City.
  • August 4, 1976: Reagan announces he is choosing Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania, a liberal Republican, as his running mate.  (Reagan loses momentum trying to amass support in the East, it fails to garner him liberal delegates, only alienates conservatives, especially in Mississippi)
  • August 7, 1976: Ronald Reagan’s four-day tour to show off his proposed running mate, Senator Richard S. Schweiker of Pennsylvania. ended here today with both men publicly proclaiming it a success.
  • August 16-19, 1976: Republican National Convention convenes in the Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, Gerald R. Ford (Michigan) for President, and Robert J. Dole (Kansas) Gerald Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan for the nomination on the first ballot; Chose conservative Senator Robert Dole of Kansas as his running mate.
  • August 19, 1976: “After a hard fought battle against former Governor Ronald Reagan of California, the Republican National Convention nominates Ford as its Presidential candidate (Ford wins with 1,187 votes to Reagan’s 1,070). Ford selects Senator Robert Dole from Kansas as his running-mate.”
  • August 19, 1976: Gerald Ford gives remarks in Kansas City upon accepting the 1976 Republican Presidential Nomination.
  • August 25, 1976: “James A. Baker becomes Ford’s campaign manager.”
  • In the first polls of the general election Ford trails Carter by 33 percentage points
  • August 28, 1976: American Independent Party Convention nominates Lester Maddox for President.
  • Carter runs as an “untainted” Washington outsider; honest reformer; “born again” Christian. Active campaign, nasty attacks against Ford; “an appointed President”; “Can you think of a single program that he’s put forth that’s been accepted?”
  • Television commercials sponsors by the President Ford Committee, show Ford as a family man.
  • September 1976: Another controversy erupts from the Playboy interview (November 1976 issue) when Carter lumps Lyndon Johnson with Richard Nixon, as “lying, cheating and distorting the truth.” Carter quickly backs down, claims his comments were distorted, but Lady Bird Johnson would not see him when he campaigns in Texas, and Johnson’s daughter Luci, who did make an appearance, was icy.
  • September 24, 1976: “Jimmy Carter, seeking the 26 Electoral College votes of Texas, expressed regret today about his remarks that former President Lyndon B. Johnson had engaged in “lying, cheating and distorting the truth.””
  • September 26, 1976: First Presidential Campaign Debate in Philadelphia (The League of Women Voters sponsors the series of debates between Ford/Carter). Ford challenges Carter to debates. Ford accuses Carter of inexperience. Carter is vague on many of the issues, but promises to end desegregation busing. Ford wins  the first debate, narrows Carter’s lead by half.
  • October 1976: Ford only actively campaigns in the last month of the campaign
  • October 4, 1976: Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz’s racist joke on a plane trip is leaked to the press, prompting him to resign.
  • October 6, 1976: Second Presidential Campaign Debate in San Francisco. Ford heavily falters in the second debate with his comments about Communism and the Soviet Union.
  • October 12, 1976: “Ford is pelted with eggs by an antagonistic crowd while campaigning in New York City.”
  • October 15, 1976: Vice-Presidential Debate in Houston between Walter Mondale and Robert Dole, Dole blames the Democratic Presidents of military unpreparedness and they were responsible for every war the U.S. had fought in the twentieth century, noting that a Democrat President presided over every war the US was involved in. Voters find Dole harsh and cold in his blame, despite the fact he is a World War II veteran himself  (U.S. casualties in “Democrat wars” was roughly equal to the population of Detroit)
  • October 22, 1976: Third Presidential Campaign Debate in Williamsburg, Virginia.
  • October 1976: Carter tarnishes his “born again” image with and interview with Playboy (November 1976 issue), claiming “I’ve committed adultery in my heart many times”; blunder the press emphasized; “SEX, SIN, TEMPTATION — CARTER’S CANDID VIEW,” Chicago SunTimes. The Washington Star: “CARTER ON SIN AND LUST; ‘I’M HUMAN . . . I’M TEMPTED'”
  • Ford participated in a series of television appearances with Joe Garagiola, Sr., retired baseball player for the St. Louis Cardinals and announcer for NBC Sports. The two appeared in several different cities together, they were informal interview shows, Garagiola asked Ford questions about his life and beliefs; television critics called the “Joe and Jerry Show.” The shows help Ford and narrow the polling margin between the two candidates
  • October 16, 1976: President Ford asserts Carter will say ‘Anything Anywhere’ to be elected President. (NYT)
  • October 21, 1976: “A Gallup poll shows Ford reducing the gap between Carter and himself to 6 percent.”
  • November 3, 1976: “The pastor of President-elect Jimmy Carter’s church has called for a meeting November 14 to consider whether he should be dismissed because of a racial dispute and his support of Mr. Carter in his race for the Presidency and concerning his controversial interview with Playboy magazine.”
  • November 4 , 1976: “While President elect Jimmy Carter savors his victory and begins to pull together the reins of state, the quiet country church from which he has said he draws spiritual sustenance was being torn apart by racial tensions and leadership questions.”
  • November 14, 1976: The Rev. Bruce Edwards, President-elect Jimmy Carter’s minister at the Plains Baptist Church and the central figure in a racial controversy here, says that he does not want anyone to misinterpret his belief that there is spiritual guidance behind his stand that his church must be open to all who want to enter. A black minister from Americus, Georgia, applies for a job a Carter’s segregated Baptist church in Plains, he is refused, and pressure was put on Carter to withdraw his membership, Carter refuses, but promises decreased discrimination.
  • The President Ford Committee sent telegrams to 407 black ministers for comments. Mrs. Coretta Scott King, Jesse Jackson, Andrew Young, and Martin Luther King, Sr. defend Carter and the issue was resolved.
  • November 2, 1976: Election Day; Democrats Jimmy Carter is elected President and Walter Mondale is elected Vice President.
  • December 13, 1976: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitals.

 

 


1980

  • 1978: the Kemp-Roth tax cut bill
  • September 5-17, 1978: “Carter mediates talks between Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt at Camp David, resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations.”
  • October 15, 1978: “Congress passes a revised energy bill eighteen months after Carter proposed it. Congress also passes the Humphrey-Hawkins full employment bill.” Energy crisis (rise in oil prices) economy (double-digit inflation, increased interest rates; productivity down; unemployment)
  • 1978: American’s wanted less government involvement; Californians voted for Proposition 13 in 1978, which decreased property taxes
  • April 20, 1979: “President Carter claims a rabbit tried to attack him during a fishing trip in Georgia, and the Washington Post runs a front page story with the headline: “President Attacked by Rabbit.””
  • June 21, 1979: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Benjamin C. Bubar for President.
  • July 15, 1979: “Carter delivers what becomes known as his “malaise speech,” blaming the problems of the nation on “a crisis of spirit.”” Carter’s “Malaise” speech (national malaise); “crisis of confidence”
  • July 18-19, 1979: “Carter accepts the resignations of five cabinet members and names Hamilton Jordan chief of staff.”
  • Summer 1979: Prior to Kennedy’s official candidacy announcement he led President Carter by a 2-1 margin.
  • August 14, 1979: Socialist Workers Party Convention nominates Cleve Andrew Pulley for President.
  • Labor Day, 1979: Kennedy announces his candidacy, draft Kennedy movement.  Massachusetts Senator Edward Kennedy challenges Carter for the Democratic Presidential nomination
  • September 9, 1979: Libertarian Party Convention nominates Edward E. “Ed” Clark for President.
  • September 14, 1979: “A Washington Post poll gives Carter the lowest approval rating of any President in three decades.”
  • September 15, 1979: “Carter collapses in 10K race, leading the press to depict the event as representative of the strength of his presidency.”
  • November 4, 1979: Iran hostage crisis “Iranian students take sixty-six Americans hostage at the American embassy in Tehran.” Iran hostage crisis; Carter’s approval ratings, 28% (Gallup); Iranians student revolutionaries storm the U.S. Embassy in Teheran and take Americans hostage; They were protesting the United States for permitting the deposed Shah of Iran, Mohammed Riza Pahlevi to enter the country for medical treatments. The revolutionaries threaten to either murder or put the hostages on trial unless the US returns the Shah. Instead, Carter, allows the Shah to complete his treatment, freezes Iranian assets and requests assistance from the United Nations.
  • November 13, 1979: “Reagan announces his candidacy for the Republican nomination for President. He is the tenth and last Republican to enter the race.” Reagan working earnestly since 1977 to capture the nomination, Reagan tours the country, meeting and speaking to the public garnering support.
  • November 18, 1979: Communist Party Convention nominates Gus Hall for President.
  • November 1979: Kennedy’s own actions contribute to his drop in support; in a CBS interview on November with Roger Mudd is awkward and incoherent in responses about the Chappaquiddick incident, and especially in response to the question “Why do you want to be President?”
  • December 9, 1979: American Independent Party Convention nominates Percy L. Greaves Jr for President.
  • December 4, 1979: “Carter officially announces his candidacy for reelection.”
  • No apparent Republican frontrunner candidate, however, Former California governor Ronald Reagan (conservative wing) had been unofficially campaigning for the nomination since he lost the 1976 nomination to Ford by only 117 votes
  • December 1979: After the Iranian hostage crisis began, Kennedy loses traction. The public support for the President in time of national crisis increases, Kennedy’s lead vanishes.
  • In a later interview Kennedy called the Shah’s “one of the most violent regimes in the history of mankind”; afterwards the New York Post ran the headline “Teddy Is the Toast of Teheran.”
  • John Connally, Howard Baker withdraws early from the campaign
  • January 3-4, 1980: “Due to the invasion of Afghanistan, Carter asks the Senate to table its consideration of SALT II. He also placed an embargo on grain sales to the Soviet Union and suggests the possibility of boycotting the Summer Olympics in Moscow.”
  • January 23, 1980: “Carter announces the “Carter Doctrine” in his State of the Union address, asserting that threats to the Persian Gulf region will be viewed as “an assault of the vital interests of the United States.””
  • January 21, 1980: Iowa caucuses (both parties) Ambassador George Herbert Walker Bush (Texas) wins the Iowa Caucus announces “big mo” (momentum); wins a total of 6 primaries Iowa Caucus Republican Ronald Reagan 30%, George H.W. Bush 32%,  Howard Baker 15% Kennedy loses: Iowa caucus, and New Hampshire, wins a total of 10 primaries,
  • January 22: Hawaii Republican caucuses
  • fundraising; organizing a staff. His messages “get the government off our backs.”
  • February 1-15, 1980: Maine Republican caucuses
  • February 2, 1980: Arkansas Republican caucuses
  • February 4-5, 1980: Wyoming Republican caucuses
  • February 10, 1980: Maine Democratic caucuses
  • February 17, 1980: Puerto Rico Primary Republican George H.W. Bush 60% John Anderson 37%
  • February 23, 1980: “‘Ambush at Nashua’ debate with George Bush. The debate also includes other Republican candidates John Anderson, Howard Baker, Phil Crane and Bob Dole.”
  • February 24, 1980: Socialist Party Convention nominates David McReynolds for President.
  • February 26, 1980: Minnesota caucuses (both parties), New Hampshire primary
    Reagan wins the New Hampshire primary, and wins a total of 29 primaries. New Hampshire Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 50% George H.W. Bush 23% John Anderson 10%
  • March: Virginia Republican caucuses (through April)
  • March 4, 1980: Massachusetts primary, Vermont primary (beauty contest–no delegates at stake) Massachusetts Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 29% George H.W. Bush 31% John Anderson 31%
  • March 4 Vermont Primary Ronald Reagan 30% George H.W. Bush 22% John Anderson 29% Howard Baker 12%
  • March 8, 1980: South Carolina Republican primary (party-run) South Carolina Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 55% George H.W. Bush 15%
  • March 11, 1980: Alabama primary, Alaska Democratic caucuses, Florida primary, Georgia primary, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Oklahoma Democratic caucuses, Washington caucuses (both parties)
    1. Alabama Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 70% George H.W. Bush 26;
    2. Florida Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 56% George H.W. Bush 30% John Anderson 9%;
    3. Georgia Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 73% George H.W. Bush 13% John Anderson 8%
  • March 12: Delaware Democratic caucuses
  • March 14, 1980: “Carter announces his anti-inflation program which includes a proposal for a balanced budget for fiscal year 1981.”
  • March 15: Mississippi Democratic caucuses, South Carolina Democratic caucuses, Wyoming Democratic caucuses
  • March 18, 1980: Illinois primary Republican Ronald Reagan 49% George H.W. Bush 11% John Anderson 36%
  • March 21: North Dakota Republican caucuses
  • March 22: Virginia Democratic caucuses
  • March 25, 1980: Connecticut primary, New York primary. Connecticut Primary Republican Ronald Reagan 34% George H.W. Bush 39% John Anderson 22%
  • April 1, 1980:  Kansas primary, Wisconsin primary. Kansas Primary Republican: Ronald Reagan 63% George H.W. Bush 13% John Anderson 18% Howard Baker 1% John Connally 1%Wisconsin
  • Ronald Reagan 40% George H.W. Bush 30% John Anderson 27%
  • April 1980: Anderson withdrew
  • April 5, 1980: Louisiana primary, Missouri Republican caucuses (through April 12) Louisiana Ronald Reagan 74% George H.W. Bush 19%
  • April 7: Oklahoma Republican caucuses
  • April 12: Arizona Democratic caucuses
  • April 13: Arizona Republican committee meeting (& caucuses)
  • April 13, 1980: Citizen’s Party Convention nominates Barry Commoner for President.
  • April 17: Idaho Democratic caucuses
  • April 17, 1980: “Carter announces that the economy is in recession, with the inflation rates hitting ten percent and interest rates climbing to eighteen percent.”
  • April 19: Alaska Republican convention (through April 20), North Dakota Democratic caucuses
  • April 22, 1980: Missouri Democratic caucuses, Pennsylvania primary, Vermont caucuses (both parties). Pennsylvania, Republican: Ronald Reagan 43% George H.W. Bush 50% John Anderson 2% Howard Baker 3% John Connally 1%
  • April 22, 1980: “The U.S. Olympic Committee votes to boycott the Moscow summer Olympics, supporting Carter in protesting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.”
  • April 25, 1980: “Carter announces the failure of “Desert One,” the mission to rescue the Iranian-held hostages, and that several American military personnel had been killed.”
  • April 26: Michigan Democratic caucuses
  • April 30: Delaware Republican committee meeting (& caucuses)
  • May 3, 1980:  Texas primary (Republicans), Texas Democratic caucuses.
    Texas Primary Republican: Ronald Reagan 53% George H.W. Bush 46%
  • May 5: Colorado caucuses (both parties)
  • May 6, 1980: Indiana primary, North Carolina primary, Tennessee primary
    1. Washington, D.C. Primary Republican: George H.W. Bush 66% John Anderson 27%;
    2. Indiana Primary Republican, Ronald Reagan 74% George H.W. Bush 16% John Anderson 10% 0% 0% Phil Crane 4% 0%;
    3. North Carolina Primary Republican,  Ronald Reagan 68% George H.W. Bush 22% John Anderson 5%;
    4. Tennessee Primary Republican, Ronald Reagan 74% George H.W. Bush 18% John Anderson 4%
  • May 13, 1980:  Maryland primary, Nebraska primary
    1. Maryland Ronald Reagan 48% George H.W. Bush 41% John Anderson 10% 0% 0% Phil Crane 1 % 0%;
    2. Nebraska Ronald Reagan 76% George H.W. Bush 15% John Anderson 6% 0% 0% Phil Crane 1% Bob Dole 1%
  • May 19: Utah caucuses (both parties)
  • May 20, 1980:  Michigan primary (Republicans), Oregon primary
    1. Michigan Ronald Reagan 32% George H.W. Bush 57% John Anderson 8% 0% 0% Phil Crane 1% Bob Dole 1%;
    2. Oregon Ronald Reagan 54% George H.W. Bush 35% John Anderson 10% 0% 0% Phil Crane 1% 0%
  • May 27, 1980:  Arkansas primary (Democrats), Idaho primary (Republicans), Kentucky primary, Nevada primary
  • Idaho Republican: Ronald Reagan 83% George H.W. Bush 4% John Anderson 10% Phil Crane 1%;
    1. Kentucky, Republican:  Ronald Reagan 82% George H.W. Bush 7% John Anderson  5%;
    2. Nevada Ronald Reagan 83% George H.W. Bush 4% John Anderson 10% Phil Crane 1 %
  • Carter wins 24 primaries and leads in the delegation count prior to commencement of the convention, the hostage crisis helps Carter recapture the nomination, but stalled negotiations hurt his chances for reelection
  • Spring 1980: Carter refuses to debate Kennedy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • June 1980: “Carter’s approval rating reaches the lowest mark of any President since 1945.”
  • June 3, 1980: California primary, Mississippi Republican primary (party-run), Montana primary (Democrats), New Jersey primary, New Mexico primary, Ohio primary, Rhode Island primary, South Dakota primary, West Virginia primary
  • California Primary Republican, Ronald Reagan 80% George H.W. Bush 5% John Anderson 14%;
  • Mississippi Primary Republican, Ronald Reagan 89% George H.W. Bush 8%;
  • Montana Ronald Reagan 87% George H.W. Bush 10%;
  • New Jersey Ronald Reagan 81% George H.W. Bush 17% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%;
  • New Mexico Ronald Reagan 64% George H.W. Bush 10% John Anderson 12% Phil Crane 7% 0%;
  • Ohio Ronald Reagan 81% George H.W. Bush 19%;
  • Rhode Island Ronald Reagan 72% George H.W. Bush 19%;
  • South Dakota Ronald Reagan 88% George H.W. Bush 4%;
  • West Virginia Ronald Reagan 84% George H.W. Bush 14%
  • June 4-12, 1988: Montana Republican caucuses
  • July 1, 1980: Peace & Freedom Party Campaign nominates Maureen Smith for President.
  • July 1, 1980: Workers’ World Party Campaign nominates Deirdre Griswold for President.
  • July 1, 1980: Right to Life Party Campaign nominates Ellen McCormack for President.
  • July 14-17, 1980: Republican National Convention convenes at the Joe Louis Arena in Detroit, Michigan, and nominates on the 1st ballot Ronald W. Reagan (California) for President, and George H. W. Bush (Texas) for Vice President.  Reagan engages in negotiations to offer Gerald Ford the Vice Presidential nomination, Republicans consider it a “dream ticket”; part of the negotiations included increased responsibilities for Ford. Although when CBS News’ Walter Cronkite interviews Ford and calls it a co presidency, negotiations ceases.
  • July 16, 1980: Reagan breaks precedent and announced himself at the convention his choice for his running mate is former opponent George H.W. Bush.
  • July 17, 1980: Ronald Reagan gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Detroit.
  • July 25, 1980: “Carter signs Presidential Directive 59 advocating a strategy for fighting a “limited” nuclear war.”
  • August 10, 1980: “Despite new surveys showing Democrats nationwide in favor of an “open” convention, proponents of the idea conceded that they still lacked 75 to 100 delegate votes to block the proposed “faithful delegate” rule that would insure President Carter’s renomination at the Democratic National Convention Wednesday night.” (NYT)
  • August 11-14, 1980: Democratic National Convention convenes at Madison Square Garden in New York. Tip O’Neill (Massachusetts) serves as chairman. The convention renominates on the 1st ballot Jimmy Carter (Georgia) for President, and Walter Mondale (Minnesota) for Vice President. There is a conflict between the Carter and Kennedy camps. Kennedy refuses to cede the nomination wants a rule passed in 1978 overruled, the delegates would not oblige, also Kennedy wanted an “open” convention  adopted, which would release delegates from voting for the candidates they were pledged to in the primaries on the first ballot. The rule is defeated, prompting Kennedy to withdraw his name from the nomination. There is a battle over the party platform; 17 hours of debate and roll call votes. Senator Kennedy devises the compromise platform, reflects his liberal ideology especially concerning economic policy within the plank. Kennedy’s speech on the economic minority plank prompts a “40-minute emotional demonstration on the convention floor” Carter’s speech disappoints in contrast.
  • August 14, 1980: Jimmy Carter gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Detroit. After Carter’s acceptance speech, Kennedy made the candidates and convention wait until he joined the party on the podium, and although he shook Carter’s hand, he did not raise his hands, the tradition salute of unity; showing party disunity on television to the voters.
  • August 25, 1980: National Unity Party Campaign John B. Anderson is nominated President.
  • August 30, 1980: American Independent Party Convention nominates John R. Rarick for President.
  • August 1, 1980: Billygate: Revelation that Carter’s brother had accepted $220,000 for lobbying from the Libyan government. “Jimmy Carter the President who campaigns against Washington’s ingrown camaraderie, has never seemed more alone here than this week as all the machinery and panoply of a full-scale Congressional investigation quickly, almost hungrily, begins to focus on the problems and secrets of his brother Billy.” (NYT)
  • 1980: The League of Women Voters sponsors the debates for 1980; three presidential, one vice presidential. Anderson is invited to debate with the major party candidates because of his poll standing, Carter is not interested in participating in the debates this time, but especially refused to debate with Anderson, Reagan refuses to debate without Anderson’s participation.
  • September 21, 1980: First Presidential Debate in Baltimore (Reagan-Anderson), is moderated by Bill Moyers, Baltimore, Maryland with Reagan and Anderson; candidates spend most of the debate criticizing Carter for not participating.
  • Anderson had been as high as 20% prior to the Presidential debate, right after the debate dropped to over 10%, dropped to about 5% afterwards
  • September-October 1980: Anderson inclusion or exclusion in the remaining debates remains a point of contention, second Presidential debate, Vice Presidential debate is cancelled as a result. Nearing the end, Reagan agrees to Carter’s demands for the debate.
  • September 25, 1980: Reagan speaks to an audience of production workers in Sunnydale, California, where he started his campaign for governor in 1966. Reagan blames Carter for the position of the economy, and for decreased production. Reagan emphasizes, “In place of imagination, Jimmy Carter says we must have regulation. In place of ingenuity, he says we must have conformity to federal guidelines. In place of expansion, he says we must have restriction. In place of growth he says we must be content with the status quo.”
  • October 7, 1980: In a speech in Philadelphia Reagan claims that Carter had been manipulating statistics to appear the situation for Americans had actually improved during his term in office. Reagan states that his plan would restore “predictability and stability to economic policy,” and would “gradually reduce inflation and unemployment at the same time.”
  • October 1980: October Surprise: Republican candidate Ronald Reagan’s campaign strategists, fearful of a late-breaking deal ending the Iranian hostage crisis, and warn the public about the possibility Jimmy Carter could use the presidency to manipulate events and win the election.
  • October 1980: To neutralize the effect on the country of an “October Surprise,” Reagan and his strategists continually mention the possibility of something happening at the last minute. They believe that by bringing up the issue in advance the voters would see it as a cynical bid for votes rather than as the product of careful statesmanship. As Reagan says on a Tampa Bay television station in early October, “Presidents can make things happen you know.”
  • October 10, 1980: “President Carter, campaigning in Florida, contends that Ronald Reagan’s record indicates he would not be “a good man to trust with the affairs of this nation in the future.”” (NYT)
  • October 28, 1980: Second Presidential Debate Cleveland, Ohio, Moderated by Howard K. Smith, turning point of campaign with 100,000,000 viewers. No other Presidential debates in subsequent elections have changed the course of a campaign as in 1980. Topics include the Iranian hostage crisis, and nuclear arms treaties and proliferation. Carter attempts to portray Reagan as a “hawk” and too conservative, who voted against Medicare and Social Security benefits as governor.  Reagan’s demeanor is sunny, tolerant, calm, reasonable and responsible. Carter’s claim that he consults with his 12-year-old daughter Amy about nuclear weapons policy (post-debate analysis and late-night television jokes), “the control of nuclear arms.” Reagan’s masterful debate conclusion swayed independent and undecided voters “Are you better off now than you were four years ago?” Second Presidential debate, turned the campaign in Reagan’s favor .
  • November 4, 1980 Election Day; Republicans Ronald Reagan is elected President and George H. W. Bush is elected Vice President. Carter wins 49 electoral votes to Reagan’s 489.
  • December 15, 1980: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitals.
  • January 20, 1981: With the one-year anniversary of the hostage taking approaching on Election Day, Reagan’s comments were intended to cause public cynicism. The hostages are released within an hour of Reagan’s inauguration.

 

 


1984

 

  • January 20, 1981: “Fifty-two American hostages held in Iran since November 1979 are released.”
  • March 30, 1981: Assassination attempt on Reagan; he “is shot in the chest by John Warnock Hinckley Jr.”
  • August 13, 1981: “Reagan signs the tax cut into law.”
  • November 1982: Mid-term Elections, Republicans lost 27 seats in the House
  • 1982: Reagan’s popularity declines, after the enactment of conservative economic program, economic recovery uneven, no foreign policy achievements; advocate stronger military power; time seems ripe for Democrats, eight candidates enter the race
  • 1983: Lebanon terrorist truck bomb murdered 241 Marines.
  • March 23, 1983: “Reagan urges development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), an attempt to create a high-technology anti-ballistic missile shield to protect the United States from nuclear attack.”
  • April 20, 1983: “President Reagan signs the Social Security Reform Bill into law.”
  • June 24, 1983: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Earl F. Dodge Jr. for President.
  • July 1, 1983: “The final phase of the tax cut goes into effect.”
  • September 4, 1983: Libertarian Party Convention nominates David Bergland for President.
  • September 5, 1983: Socialist Party Convention, No Nominee
  • October 1983: Grenada invasion to rout the Marxist government. Reagan shows decisive leadership, and his popularity rises. Becomes a different landscape for Democratic candidates.
  • November 11, 1983: “The House Democratic Caucus, brushing aside objections from Walter F. Mondale, who is considered the front-runner among Democraatic Presidential candidates, have announced plans for a roundtable candidates’ discussion as part of a nationally televised debate among the party’s contenders next Jan. 15.” (NYT)
  • December 4, 1983: American Independent Convention nominates Delmar Denni for President.
  • January 23, 1984 Communist Party Convention nominates Gus Hall for President.
  • February 1984: “Redeployment”of 1400 Marines from Beirut to Navy ships offshore.
  • 1984: Economic recovery from a recession
  • Walter Mondale the front runner with the support of labor organizations (the National Education Association, AFL-CIO); not enough party leaders support;
  • Edward Kennedy chooses not to run because of family responsibilities
  • Colorado Senator Gary Hart, new generation; “new ideas”, moderate and contemporary Democratic candidate, wins 16 primaries including New Hampshire;
  • Primaries 1984: Reagan did not campaign throughout the primaries, only a campaign appearance in Iowa on the day of the caucus. There is no serious opposition to the popular incumbent. Perennial Harold Stassen only candidate to file in more than one state. Opposition to Reagan, uncommitted slates in Tennessee and Rhode Island, Reagan received only 9% of the vote
  • Mondale charges that Hart’s “New Ideas” were shallow, no specifics “Where’s the Beef” commercial
  • Hart criticizes Mondale “old-fashioned” New Deal Democrat, “failed policies” of the past.
  • February 20, 1984: Iowa caucuses (both parties)
  • February 27, 1984: “The Rev. Jesse Jackson acknowledges that he had used the word ”Hymie” in a private conversation to refer to Jews. Appearing at a synagogue in New York, Mr. Jackson, who is seeking the Democratic Presidential nomination, seeks to put to rest a controversy that has dogged his campaign in New York.” (NYT) Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson, first black man under serious contention for the serious for the Presidential candidacy on a major party ticket; strong religious overtones; Rainbow Coalition Jackson lost momentum by referring in a comment to Jews as “Hymies” and New York as “Hymietown”. Jackson later apologizes; association with controversial Rev. Louis Farrakhan.
  • February 28, 1984: New Hampshire primary
  • March 4, 1984: Maine Democratic caucuses
  • March 10, 1984: Wyoming Democratic caucuses
  • March 13, 1984: Alabama primary, Florida primary, Georgia primary, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Massachusetts primary, Nevada Democratic caucuses, Oklahoma Democratic caucuses, Rhode Island primary, Washington Democratic caucuses
  • March 14, 1984: Delaware Democratic caucuses, North Dakota Democratic caucuses (through March 28)
  • March 15, 1984: Alaska Democratic caucuses
  • March 17, 1984: Arkansas Democratic caucuses, Michigan Democratic caucuses, Mississippi Democratic caucuses, South Carolina Democratic caucuses
  • March 20, 1984: Illinois primary, Minnesota Democratic caucuses
  • March 24, 1984: Kansas Democratic caucuses, Virginia Democratic caucuses (and March 26) “Senator Gary Hart charges that Walter F. Mondale had not set forth a positive program in their contest for the Democratic Presidential nomination, but had instead ”dedicated his recent campaign to tearing me down.”” (NYT)
  • March 25, 1984: Montana Democratic caucuses
  • March 27, 1984: Connecticut primary
  • March 29, 1984: Democratic Candidates Roundtable debate moderated by Phil Donahue, Walter Mondale, Gary Hart; Jesse Jackson participated Mondale and Hart argument over U.S. policy in Central America. Jackson interrupts to calm Hart and Mondale down. “Gary Hart and Walter F. Mondale criticize each other heatedly on foreign policy and arms control issues in a nationally televised debate marked by sharp accusations about campaign tactics in the Democratic Presidential contest requiring Rev. Jesse Jackson to try to quiet them down.” (NYT)
  • March 31, 1984: Kentucky Democratic caucuses
  • April 3, 1984: New York primary, Wisconsin primary (Republicans only)
  • April 7, 1984: Wisconsin Democratic caucuses
  • April 10, 1984: Pennsylvania primary
  • April 14, 1984: Arizona Democratic caucuses
  • April 18, 1984: Missouri Democratic caucuses
  • April 24, 1984: Vermont Democratic caucuses
  • April 25, 1984: Utah Democratic caucuses
  • May 1, 1984: Tennessee primary
  • May 5, 1984: Colorado Democratic caucuses, Louisiana primary, Texas Democratic caucuses
  • May 8, 1984: Indiana primary, Maryland primary, North Carolina primary, Ohio primary
  • May 15, 1984: Nebraska primary, Oregon primary
  • May 24, 1984: Idaho primary and Democratic caucuses (primary was a beauty contest with no delegates at stake; delegates were allocated through the caucuses)
  • June 1984: Hart insults New Jersey losing the primary in June although he had lead in the polls by 15% points, could not sweep Super Tuesday in June, could gain super delegate support to win the nomination
  • June 5, 1984: California primary, Mississippi primary (Republicans only), Montana primary (Republicans only), New Jersey primary, New Mexico primary, South Dakota primary, West Virginia primary
  • July 1, 1984: Independent Alliance Party Campaign nominates Dennis L. Serrett for President.
  • July 1, 1984: Workers’ World Party Campaign nominates Larry Holmes for President.
  • July 1, 1984: National Unity Campaign nominates John B. Anderson for President.
  • July 1, 1984: Socialist Workers Party Campaign nominates Melvin T. “Mel” Mason for President.
  • July 1, 1984: Workers’ League Party Campaign nominee Edward Winn for President.
  • July 16-19, 1984: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Moscone Center, San Francisco, California. Martha Layne Collins (Kentucky) serves as chairperson. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, Walter Mondale (Minnesota) for President, and Geraldine A. Ferraro (New York) for Vice President. Mondale clinches the nomination on the first ballot and chooses New York congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate, Ferraro is the first woman nominated to a major party ticket.
  • July 19, 1984: Walter Mondale gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.
  • August 12, 1984: Citizen’s Party Convention nominates Sonia Johnson for President.
  • August 19, 1984: Populist Party Convention nominates Bob Richards for President.
  • August 1984: Reagan appears bewildered when asked about control by a reporter, First Lady Nancy Reagan, whispers a response that Reagan used “Doing everything we can.”
  • August 20-23, 1984: Republican National Convention convenes in Reunion Arena, Dallas nominates on the 1st ballot, Ronald W. Reagan (California), George H. W. Bush (Texas) Only time the presidential and vice presidential roll call are taken concurrently. Last time the Vice Presidential candidate of either major party is nominated by roll call vote.
  • August 23, 1984: Ronald Reagan gives remarks accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas.
  • August 26, 1984: Peace & Freedom Party Convention nominates Sonia Johnson for President.
  • Reagan Energetic and busy campaign schedule and schedule of Presidential duties at home and abroad; foreign trips to London, and “so-called Communist China”
  • August 27, 1984: “President Reagan is willing to debate Walter F. Mondale ”on reasonable terms at a reasonable time” the White House says, but will not accept the Democrat’s challenge to a series of six. Mr. Mondale formally sought six debates in a telegram Friday.”
  • September 21, 1984: “Congress and Reagan work out a compromise on the MX missile.”
  • October 7, 1984: Presidential Debate in Louisville, Kentucky:” Reagan falters; not as sharp on the first debate, hesitated and rambled during his concluding remarks prompting the Wall Street Journal runs the headline “IS OLDEST U.S. PRESIDENT NOW SHOWING HIS AGE? Reagan DEBATE PERFORMANCE INVITES OPEN SPECULATION ON HIS ABILITY TO SERVE.”
  • October 10, 1984: “Walter F. Mondale challenges President Reagan late today to pledge his full commitment to Social Security and Medicare and said Mr. Reagan had failed to keep promises four years ago to continue the programs intact.”
  • October 11, 1984: Vice-Presidential Debate in Philadelphia
  • October 16, 1984: “Reagan Leads Mondale 53%-44% in Harris Poll”
  • October 21, 1984: Presidential Debate in Kansas City, Missouri; Reagan rebounds on second debate, and dismisses the age issue; “I will not make age an issue of this campaign, I’m not going to exploit for political purposes my opponent’s youth and inexperience.”
  • Mondale tries to make of issue of Reagan’s support of prayer in public schools, and the separation of church and state, but it did not hold.
  • Mondale made an issue of the growing deficit and proposed tax increases, a position that backfired and proved unpopular with voters; Contrasts with Reagan’s solution of cutting spending across the board except for defense.
  • October 29, 1984: “Reagan Leads Mondale In Three Opinion Polls”
  • November 6, 1984: Election Day, Republicans Ronald Reagan is reelected President and George H. W. Bush is reelected Vice President.
  • December 17, 1984: The Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols
  • January 7, 1985: Congress assembles in joint session to count the electoral votes.

 

 


1988

 

  • May 5, 1985: “Reagan attends a wreath-laying ceremony at Bitburg military cemetery in West Germany, the gravesite of 200 German soldiers including 49 members of Adolf Hitler’s SS. Responding to criticism of the visit, Reagan visits and lays a wreath at a nearby concentration camp earlier in the day.”
  • July 13, 1985: “Reagan has a malignant polyp removed from his colon; Vice President Bush serves as acting President for eight hours.”
  • November 19-21, 1985: “Reagan and Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev hold a summit meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. It is the first such meeting between U.S and Soviet heads of state since 1979.”
  • December 19, 1985: Edward Kennedy announces he would not run for the Presidency
  • June 17, 1986: “Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger announces his retirement; Regan elevates Justice William Rehnquist to the position of chief justice and nominates Anthony Scalia as an associate justice.”
  • September 16, 1986: Pierre DuPont announces his candidacy
  • October 11-12, 1986: “Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik, Iceland.”
  • October 22, 1986: “Reagan signs a revision of the tax code into law.”
  • November 4, 1986: Midterm elections; the Democrats regained control of the U.S. Senate. “The Democrats win control of Senate, the first time during Reagan’s tenure that both houses of Congress are in Democratic hands.”
  • November 13, 1986: “The White House informs Congress that the United States secretly sold arms to Iran in violation of federal laws prohibiting arms deals with Iran. The administration denies that the sales were part of an attempt to secure the release of American hostages held by Iranian-backed forces.”
  • November 25, 1986: “The administration admits that between $10 and $30 million had been diverted from Iranian arms sales and funneled to the Nicaraguan contras.”
  • November 26, 1986: “The Tower Commission is appointed to investigate the Iran-Contra affair. Reagan forgoes any claim of executive privilege and orders his administration to cooperate fully with the investigation. Lawrence Walsh is appointed special prosecutor to investigate criminal wrongdoing.”
  • December 1986: Joe Biden announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • February 19, 1987: Mario Cuomo withdraws from the Democratic race
  • 1987: The new Senate rejects Reagan’s choice for a Supreme Court vacancy (Robert Bork).
  • February 21, 1987: Sam Nunn announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential Race.
  • February 23, 1987: Iran contra scandal tarnishes President Ronald Reagan and the Republicans.
  • February 17, 1987 Jack Kemp announces his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • February 19, 1987: Richard Gephardt announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • February 26, 1987: “The Tower Commission releases its report, finding no criminal wrongdoing on the part of the White House but remaining critical of the administration nonetheless.”
  • February 27, 1987: Howard Baker withdraws from the Republican Presidential race.
  • March 4, 1987: “In televised address, Reagan accepts responsibility for actions in Iran-Contra affair that occurred without his knowledge.”
  • March 10, 1987: Bruce Babbitt announces his candidacy the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • March 16, 1987: Michael Dukakis announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • March 19, 1987: Jesse Jackson announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • March 20, 1987: Dale Bumpers withdrew from the Democratic Presidential race/
  • ???March 24, 1987: Alexander Haig February 12, 1988 Alexander Haig
  • April 1987: Bob Dole announces his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • April 10, 1987: Al Gore announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • April 13, 1987: Gary Hart announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • April 28, 1987: Paul Laxalt announces his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • May 8, 1987: Colorado Senator Gary Hart withdraws from the race. The 1984 Democratic hopeful, a moderate centrist is the front-runner, until rumors of an extramarital affair dog Hart in 1987. He challenges The New York Times magazine to ‘put a tail’ on him, but claims they would “be bored.” Miami Herald receives an anonymous tip from a friend that Donna Rice is the one involved in the rumored affair with Hart.
  • May 18, 1987: Paul Simon announces his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • July 15, 1987 Bill Clinton withdraws from the Democratic race.
  • August 24, 1987 Joe Biden withdraws from the Democratic race.
  • August 26, 1987 Paul Laxalt withdraws from the Republican race.
  • September 15, 1987: Delaware Senator Joseph Biden is accused of plagiarizing a speech by Neil Kinnock, the leader of the British Labour Party. Although he cites all his other sources, suspicion raises. The Dukakis campaign uses this one time, as a political hit piece. Dukakis campaign later admits to having released the tape.
  • September 16, 1987: “Senator Joseph R. Biden Jr., a Democratic Presidential candidate, was accused of plagiarism while in his first year at Syracuse University Law School, academic officials familiar with Mr. Biden’s record said.” (NYT)
  • September 23, 1987: Biden withdraws from the race as a result.
  • September 28, 1987: Patricia “Pat” Schroeder announces her candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • October 1, 1987: Pat Robertson, televangelist, religious right, announces his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • October 12, 1987: George H.W. Bush announces his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.
  • October 19, 1987: The stock market falls sharply on Black Monday because of computer trading.
  • November 18, 1987: “Congress issues its Iran-Contra report, declaring that Regan must assume “ultimate responsibility” for the affair.”
  • December 7-10, 1987: “Gorbachev and Reagan meet in Washington, D.C., and sign the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.”
  • December 15, 1987: Gary Hart reenters the Democratic Presidential race. The adultery allegations haunt him in the primaries, before he finally withdraws from the race
  • January 14, 1988: Michigan Republican caucus (“middle step in delegate allocation, process began in August 1986”)
  • February 1-7, 1988: Kansas Republican caucuses
  • February 4, 1988: Hawaii Republican caucuses
  • February 8, 1988: Iowa caucuses (both parties). Iowa Republican caucus George H.W. Bush 19% Bob Dole 37% Pat Robertson 25% Jack Kemp 11% Pete du Pont 7% Iowa Caucus: Republican upset, Robert Dole won it, Pat Robertson, second and Bush, third; Democrat: Richard Gephart, (populist campaign) won he Iowa caucus; Illinois Senator Paul M. Simon second, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis third
  • Dole leads in the polls in New Hampshire, Bush releases a campaign ad portraying Dole as a tax raiser, Governor John H. Sununu campaigns for Bush,
  • February 9, 1988: Wyoming Republican caucuses (through February 24)
  • February 16, 1988: New Hampshire primary. New Hampshire Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 38% Bob Dole 29% Pat Robertson 9% Jack Kemp 13% Pete du Pont 10%. Republican Bush wins by a small margin, “Big Mo” momentum; Dole goes on TV after his defeat in New Hampshire to denounce Bush; Democrat Dukakis won New Hampshire; Gephardt, second; Simon, third
  • Dukakis and Tennessee Senator Al Gore release negative television ads against Gephardt. United Auto Workers, withdraw their endorsement for Gephardt, his campaign relies on labor union support.
  • February 18, 1988: Nevada Republican caucuses
  • February 18, 1988: Bruce Babbitt withdraws from the Democratic race.
  • February 18, 1988: Pierre DuPont withdraws from the Republican Presidential race.
  • February 23, 1988: Minnesota caucuses (both parties), South Dakota primary South Dakota Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 19% Bob Dole 55% Pat Robertson 20% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
  • February 28, 1988: Maine Democratic caucuses;
    February 26-28, 1988: Maine Republican caucuses, George H.W. Bush 64% Bob Dole 8% Pat Robertson 14% Jack Kemp 2% 0%
  • February 27-March 1, 1988: Alaska Republican caucuses
  • March 1, 1988: Vermont primary (beauty contest — no delegates at stake)Vermont Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 49% Bob Dole 39% Pat Robertson 5% Jack Kemp 4% Pete du Pont 2%
  • March 5, 1988: South Carolina Republican primary (party-run), Wyoming Democratic caucuses South Carolina Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 49% Bob Dole 21% Pat Robertson 19% Jack Kemp 11% 0%
  • March 8, 1988: Super Tuesday, Alabama primary, Arkansas primary, Florida primary, Georgia primary, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Idaho Democratic caucuses, Kentucky primary, Louisiana primary, Maryland primary, Massachusetts primary, Mississippi primary, Missouri primary, Nevada Democratic caucuses, North Carolina primary, Oklahoma primary, Rhode Island primary, Tennessee primary, Texas primary (Democratic primary-caucus), Virginia primary, Washington caucuses (both parties). After Super Tuesday Bush as much as clinches the nomination (organizational strength, fund raising lead); Democrat: Dukakis, six primaries; Gore, five, Jesse Jackson five; Gephardt one; Gore and Jackson split the Southern states.
    • Alabama Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 65% Bob Dole 16% Pat Robertson 14% Jack Kemp 5% 0%
    • Arkansas Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 47% Bob Dole 26% Pat Robertson 19% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Florida Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 62% Bob Dole 21% Pat Robertson 11% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Georgia Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 54% Bob Dole 24% Pat Robertson 16% Jack Kemp 6% 0%
    • Kentucky Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 59% Bob Dole 23% Pat Robertson 11% Jack Kemp 3% 0%
    • Louisiana Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 58% Bob Dole 18% Pat Robertson 18% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Maryland Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 53% Bob Dole 32% Pat Robertson 6% Jack Kemp 6% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Massachusetts Republican primary, Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 59% Bob Dole 26% Pat Robertson 5% Jack Kemp 7% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Mississippi Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 66% Bob Dole 17% Pat Robertson 13% Jack Kemp 3% 0%
    • Missouri Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 42% Bob Dole 41% Pat Robertson 11% Jack Kemp 4% 0%
    • North Carolina Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 45% Bob Dole 39% Pat Robertson 10% Jack Kemp 4% 0%
    • Oklahoma Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 37% Bob Dole 36% Pat Robertson 21% Jack Kemp 5% 0%
    • Rhode Island Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 65% Bob Dole 23% Pat Robertson 6% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
    • Tennessee Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 60% Bob Dole 22% Pat Robertson 13% Jack Kemp 4% 0%
    • Texas Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 64% Bob Dole 14% Pat Robertson 15% Jack Kemp 5% 0%
    • Virginia Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 53% Bob Dole 26% Pat Robertson 14% Jack Kemp 5% Pete du Pont 1%
  • March 10, 1988: Alaska Democratic caucuses
  • March 11, 1988 Gary Hart withdraws for the second time from the Democratic Presidential race.
  • March 12, 1988: South Carolina Democratic caucuses
  • March 15, 1988: Illinois primary. Illinois Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 55% Bob Dole 36% Pat Robertson 7% Jack Kemp 1% Pete du Pont 1%. Illinois Democratic Primary: Simon wins Illinois primary, Jackson comes in second
  • March 19, 1988: Kansas Democratic caucuses.
  • March 26, 1988: Michigan Democratic caucuses. Jesse Jackson wins the Michigan Democratic caucus with 55%, he is considered the front runner and briefly leads in the delegate count (6.9 million votes). Jesse Jackson wins in total 11 contests; seven primaries (Alabama, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia); four caucuses (Delaware, Michigan, South Carolina and Vermont, Alaska) and Texas’s local conventions however, he loses the Wisconsin primary to Dukakis.
  • March 27, 1988: North Dakota Democratic caucuses.
  • March 28, 1988: Richard Gephardt withdraws from the Democratic Presidential race.
  • March 28, 1988: Jack Kemp withdraws from the Republican Presidential race.
  • March 29, 1988:  Connecticut primary. Connecticut Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 71% Bob Dole 20% Pat Robertson 3% Jack Kemp 3% 0%
  • Dukakis becomes the front-runner after winning New York and Pennsylvania primaries.
  • March 29, 1988: Bob Dole withdraws from the Republican Presidential race
  • April 4: Colorado caucuses (both parties)
  • April 5, 1988: Delaware Republican caucuses (through April 25), Wisconsin primary. Wisconsin Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 82% Bob Dole 8% Pat Robertson 7% Jack Kemp 1% 0%
  • April 7, 1988: Paul Simon withdraws from the Democratic Presidential race
  • April 16, 1988: Arizona Democratic caucuses
    April 18, 1988: Delaware Democratic caucuses
  • April 19, 1988: New York primary, Vermont caucuses (both parties)
  • April 21, 1988: Al Gore withdraws from the Democratic Presidential race
  • April 25, 1988: Utah caucuses (both parties)
  • April 26, 1988: Pennsylvania primary. Pennsylvania Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 79% Bob Dole 12% Pat Robertson 9% 0% 0%
  • May 3, 1988: Indiana primary, Ohio primary
    • District of Columbia Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 88% Bob Dole 7% Pat Robertson 4% 0% 0%
    • Indiana Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 80% Bob Dole 10% Pat Robertson 7% Jack Kemp 3% 0%
    • Ohio Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 81% Bob Dole 12% Pat Robertson 7% 0% 0%
  • May 10, 1988: Nebraska primary, West Virginia primary
    • Nebraska Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 68% Bob Dole 22% Pat Robertson 5% Jack Kemp 4% 0%
    • West Virginia Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 77% Bob Dole 11% Pat Robertson 7% Jack Kemp 3% 0%
  • May 11, 1988: Pat Robertson withdraws from the Republican Presidential Race
  • May 14, 1988: Arizona Republican convention (“end of multi-tiered caucus process which began in 1986”)
  • ?May 15, 1988: President Reagan endorses Republican front-runner Vice President George H. W. Bush. Bush pledges to continue Reagan’s policies, but Bush also appeals to moderates.
  • May 17, 1988: Oregon primary. Oregon Republican primary: George H.W. Bush 73% Bob Dole 18% Pat Robertson 8% 0% 0%
  • May 24, 1988: Idaho primary (Republicans only), George H.W. Bush 81% 0% Pat Robertson 9% 0% 0%
  • May 29-June 1, 1988: “Reagan visits the Soviet Union for the first time.”
  • June 7, 1988: California primary, Montana primary, New Jersey primary, New Mexico primary
    • California Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 83% Bob Dole 13% Pat Robertson 4% 0% 0%
    • Montana Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 73% Bob Dole 19% June 7, 1988:  New Jersey Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 100%
    • New Mexico Republican primary, George H.W. Bush 78% Bob Dole 10% Pat Robertson 6%
  • June 11, 1988: Bush comments about Harvard’s liberalism and the differences with his own alma matter Yale
  • June 14, 1988:  North Dakota primary (Republicans only), George H.W. Bush 93%
  • July 18-21, 1988: Democratic National Convention convenes at the Omni in Atlanta, Georgia. James C. Wright (Texas) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, Michael S. Dukakis (Massachusetts) for President and  Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr. (Texas) for Vice President. Jackson remains an active candidate at the convention; his supporters claim by finishing second with a substantial amount of delegate support, Jackson is entitled to the Vice-Presidential spot on the ticket. Dukakis chooses instead experienced Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas. The media calls the ticket the “Boston-Austin” axis, as a comparison to John F. Kennedy, Massachusetts and Lyndon Johnson, Texas in 1960.
  • July 21, 1988: Michael Dukakis gives an address “A New Era of Greatness for America” accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta.
  • August 15-18, 1988: Republican National Convention convenes at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana and nominates on the 1st ballot, George H. W. Bush (Texas) for President, and Dan Quayle (Indiana) for Vice President. Bush chooses as his running mate Dan Quayle, the junior senator from Indiana.
  • August 18, 1988: George H. W. Bush accepts the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans. Bush gives his “No new taxes” pledge in the speech.
  • September 6, 1988: Michael S. Dukakis’s campaign gave ground in the debate over debates, grudgingly agreeing that there might be only two debates between the Presidential candidates, instead of three or four.” (NYT)
  • September 16, 1988: (“Bush Talks of Lasers and Bombers”) “Dukakis in the tank”, “Snoopy Incident”: Bush criticizes Dukakis on his knowledge of military issues. Dukakis sets up a photo op to squash the criticism, riding an M1 Abrams tank at the General Dynamics plant grounds, Sterling Heights, Michigan. Dukakis sticks his head out and waves to the crowd. Bush uses the footage to criticize Dukakis’ Presidential potential.
  • September 21, 1988: Floyd Brown and the Americans for Bush part of the National Security Political Action Committee (NSPAC) begin airing the ad “Weekend Passes” Willie Horton Ad (Depicts Dukakis as soft on crime, vetoed in 1976 allowing first-degree offenders from the program) defines the campaign; Dukakis does not respond effectively
  • September 25, 1988: Presidential Debate in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
  • October 4, 1988: Willie Horton, “Weekend Passes” ad is taken off the air.
  • October 5, 1988: Bush campaign airs “Revolving Door” ad, which also criticizes Dukakis’s Furlough program.
  • October 5, 1988: Vice-Presidential Debate in Omaha, Nebraska. Due to Bentsen’s elder statesman status, Republican nominee Dan Quayle avoids direct confrontation and criticism, and instead focuses on criticizing Dukakis as a liberal. Quayle attempts to compare his experience to that of former President John Kennedy to show he is experienced enough for the position, which prompts an exchange between Bentsen and Quayle.
  • October 13, 1988: Second Presidential Debate in Los Angeles: Dukakis shows no emotion, and a bland response when Bernard Shaw asks if he would continue to oppose the death penalty if his wife Kitty is raped and murdered. Dukakis is  criticized for his emotionless response. Dukakis had the flu, and his mannerisms played to his reputation as being emotionally cold. Bush wins the debate. The post debate Gallup Poll has Bush in lead 49-43.
  • October 7, 1988: Dukakis at campaign stops attacks Dan Quayle, charges that Quayle is inexperienced, lacks credentials, and gives misstatements.
  • October 1988: President Ronald Reagan actively stumps for Bush, which helps push Bush in the lead towards the end of the campaign.
  • November 8, 1988: Election Day; Republicans George H. W. Bush is elected President, and Dan Quayle is elected Vice President.
  • December 19, 1988: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitals.


1992

 

  • June 4, 1989: Massacre at Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. “The People’s Liberation Army, the military arm of the Chinese government, uses tanks and armored cars to suppress a burgeoning pro-democracy movement that had encamped in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. Estimates on the number of demonstrators killed vary between 700 and 2,700.”
  • June 5, 1989: “In the wake of the Tiananmen Square massacres, President Bush announces a number of condemnatory actions, including the suspension of the sale of American weapons to China.”
  • August 9, 1989: “President Bush signs into law the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989, a compromise with Congress on the bail-out of savings and loans.”
  • November 9, 1989: End of Cold War: “The Berlin Wall falls, marking the symbolic end of Communist rule in Eastern Europe.”
  • June 1, 1990: “At a summit meeting in Washington, D.C., President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev sign the broadest arms reduction agreement in two decades. The agreement stipulates that the United States and the Soviet Union scrap 25 percent and 40 percent of their respective nuclear stockpiles.”
  • June 26, 1990: “President Bush, in a written statement released to the press, reneges on his “no new taxes” pledge from the 1988 presidential campaign by stating that in order to solve the deficit problem, tax increases might be necessary for the 1991 fiscal year.”
  • August 2, 1990: “Iraq invades Kuwait. President Bush strongly condemns Iraq’s actions, setting the stage for an American response.”
  • October 3, 1990: “Seven months after East Germans overwhelmingly approve reunification, the two German states are formally reunited.” Berlin Wall fell; unites East and West Germany;
  • November 5, 1990: “President Bush signs a budget law intended to reduce the federal budget by almost $500 billion over the next five years. The law includes $140 billion dollars in new taxes.” Bush’s budget deal Democratic Congress raises taxes; spending cuts; Bush brakes his 1988 campaign pledge of “Read my Lips, No New Taxes.”
  • January 17, 1991: Gulf War commences over Iraq where U.S. forces and United Nations pushes Iraq out of Kuwait “The Persian Gulf War, code-named Operation Desert Storm, begins with a massive, American-led air attack on Iraq.”
  • February 24, 1991: “Ground troops, including a large contingent of American soldiers, begin operations in Operation Desert Storm.:
  • February 27, 1991: “After liberating Kuwait, coalition troops advance rapidly into Iraqi territory, encountering no resistance. President Bush, deciding that the war’s objectives had been met, calls off the ground offensive.:
  • March 1991: President Bush has an 88% approval rating in the polls
  • 1991: Bush’s popularity deters Democrats from pursuing the nomination
  • 1991: Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein remains  in power after the Gulf War and and continues to defy US and United Nations orders
  • June 26, 1991: Prohibition Convention nominates Earl F. Dodge Jr. for President.
  • July 31, 1991: “President Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Moscow to sign a nuclear arms reduction treaty (START-I) which calls for both nations to make significant reductions in the number of nuclear warheads in their respective arsenals.”
  • August 31, 1991: Libertarian Party Convention nominates Andre Marrou for President.
  • 1991: Economic recession, U.S. Gross Domestic Product drops, unemployment rate at over 6%;
  • September 1, 1991: Socialist Party Convention nominates J. Quinn Brisben for President.
  • November 1, 1991: Socialist Workers Party Convention nominates James Warren for President.
  • It is revealed that the Bush administration has placated Hussein up until the invasion. The revelation under cut into the Gulf’s War success, and Bush’s competency as a leader and in foreign policy
  • Bill Clinton takes a leading role in the Democratic Leadership Council, and uses it to build party support for a candidacy, and to become a leader within the party.
  • December 31, 1991: “The constituent republics of the Soviet Union dissolve the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.”
  • January 10, 1992: “The Labor Department announces that the unemployment rose to 7.1 percent in December 1991, the highest mark in over five years.”
  • January 24, 1992: A tabloid accuses Clinton of infidelity.
  • January 1992: Accusations surface about Clinton dodging the draft, not serving in the Vietnam War
  • 1992: After Bush’s approval rating plummets; his advisers push him to commence a reelection campaign immediately to catch up with the Democrats already campaigning
  • January 26, 1992: Clinton and his wife Hillary appear on 60 Minutes to debunk claims of Clinton’s infidelity
  • January 28, 1992: George H. W. Bush’s State of the Union (“Message: I care”), and launched his campaign determined to be “the Comeback Kid.”
  • January (late): Hawaii Republican precinct caucuses
  • January – March: North Dakota Republican precinct caucuses
  • January – May: Virginia Republican local meetings
  • February 1, 1992: “At the presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland, President Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin meet to discuss U.S.-Russian relations and officially declare the end of the Cold War.”
  • February 2-29-, 1992: Nevada Republican caucuses
  • February 10, 1992: Iowa caucuses (both parties)
  • February 18, 1992: New Hampshire primary.
    • Republican, Bush campaign nearly loses New Hampshire to Pat Buchanan. “President Bush wins the New Hampshire primary but faces a strong challenge from conservative media personality Patrick Buchanan. The conservative wing of the Republican Party supports Buchanan, revealing a division within the party.”  Patrick Buchanan, the conservative columnist, challenges Bush in the primaries, but is unable to garner more than 30% support in any primary he enters. Buchanan reveals Bush’s vulnerability on the economic issues, Bush has to move to the right to satisfy the disgruntled conservatives within the party
    • Democrats, Paul Tsongas  (Massachusetts) wins, Clinton places second. Clinton is proclaimed the “Comeback Kid” with his runner-up finish in New Hampshire after the scandal broke.
  • February 23, 1992: Maine caucuses (both parties)
  • February 25, 1992: South Dakota primary
  • February 1992: Ross Perot, a Texas billionaire announces his candidacy on Larry King Live; Perot announces he will run for the presidency if volunteers got his name on the ballot in all 50 states.
  • March 2, 1992: Alaska Republican caucuses
  • March 3, 1992: Colorado primary, Georgia primary, Idaho Democratic caucuses, Maryland primary, Minnesota Democratic caucuses, Utah Democratic caucuses, Washington Democratic caucuses
  • March 5, 1992: North Dakota Democratic caucuses (through March 19)
  • March 7, 1992: Arizona caucuses (Both parties, but the GOP caucuses had no presidential preference. Those delegates selected at those caucuses went to the state convention), South Carolina primary (party-run), Wyoming caucuses (Both parties, but Republicans meet through March 11)
  • March 8, 1992: Nevada Democratic caucuses
  • March 10, 1992: Super Tuesday, Clinton wins all the primaries in the South “back from the dead.” Bush compares his campaign to Harry Truman’s in 1948, and Bush claims Truman would vote Republican now if he were still alive, prompting Truman’s daughter, Margaret to “reject Bush’s suggestion with indignation and remind him that he was indeed no Harry Truman.” Delaware Democratic caucuses, Florida primary, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Louisiana primary, Massachusetts primary, Mississippi primary, Missouri Democratic caucuses, Oklahoma primary, Rhode Island primary, Tennessee primary, Texas primary (& Democratic caucuses)
  • March 17, 1992: Illinois primary, Michigan primary. Clinton wins Illinois and Michigan primaries, demonstrates wider voter appeal; Brown receives a strong third-place in the Illinois primary and places second in the Michigan primary. Paul Tsongas suspends his campaign. His campaign falters, out of money.
  • March 24, 1992: Connecticut primary. Democrat Jerry Brown remains in the campaign and wins
  • March 31, 1992: Vermont caucuses (both parties)
  • April – May, 1992: Hawaii Republican regional caucuses
  • April 2, 1992: Alaska Democratic caucuses, North Dakota Republican convention (through April 5)
  • April 7, 1992: Kansas primary, Minnesota primary (Republicans only), New York primary (Republicans had no presidential preference on ballot; just delegates), Wisconsin primary. Clinton wins Wisconsin Primary (37-34) over Brown, and New York Primary (41-26) over Brown. Clinton wins the remaining primaries and the Democratic Presidential nomination.
  • April 11, 13, 1992: Virginia Democratic caucuses
  • April 14, 1992: Missouri Republican caucuses
  • April 22-23, 1992: George H. W. Bush, hopes the GATT talks would result in a free trade deal and give him an advantage over Democratic candidate Bill Clinton.
  • April 27, 1992: Utah Republican caucuses
  • April 28, 1992: Pennsylvania primary
  • May 3, 1992: Populist Party Convention nominates James “Bo” Gritz for President.
  • May 5, 1992: Indiana primary, North Carolina primary
  • May 9, 1992: Delaware Republican convention
  • May 10, 1992: Arizona Republican convention, national convention delegate allocation takes place.
  • May 12, 1992: Nebraska primary, West Virginia primary
  • May 19, 1992: Oregon primary, Washington primary (Republicans only)
  • May 26, 1992: Arkansas primary, Idaho primary (Republicans only), Kentucky primary
  • May 29, 1992: Virginia Republican convention (through May 30, no formal process
  • June 2, 1992: Alabama primary, California primary, Montana primary (Democrats only), New Jersey primary, New Mexico primary, Ohio primary
  • June 4, 1992: American Independent Party Convention nominates Robert J. Smith for President.
  • June 4, 1992: Perot leads the national public opinion polls with support from 39% of the voters (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton).
  • June 4, 1992: Bill Clinton appears on Arsenio Hall and plays the saxophone, and discusses that he wanted to inhale marijuana, but didn’t know how. Clinton also tapes an installment of Larry King Live.
  • June 24, 1992: Bush calls Clinton and Gore “bozos”
  • June 9, 1992: North Dakota primary (beauty contest for both parties)
  • July 9-11, 1992: Montana Republican convention (no formal process)
  • July 13-16, 1992: Democratic National Convention convenes at Madison Square Garden in New York. Ann Richards (Texas) serves as chairperson. The convention nominates on the 1st ballot, William J. Clinton (Arkansas) for President, and Albert A. Gore, Jr. (Tennessee) for Vice President. Clinton is the leader in the delegate count, former California Governor Edmund G. “Jerry” Brown Jr. and former Massachusetts Senator Paul E. Tsongas also appear on the ballot. Clinton wins on the first ballot with 3,372 votes, and the nomination is approved by acclamation.
  • July 16, 1992: William J. Clinton gives an address accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in New York.
  • July 17, 1992: Ross Perot ends his presidential run.
  • July 17, 1992: Clinton chooses another young Southerner, Tennessee Senator Albert Gore Jr. for his running mate; Clinton-Gore ticket is the youngest in the 20th century, Clinton, age 45, and Gore, age 44.
  • July 18, 1992: Clinton receives a significant bounce in the polls after the convention
  • August 12, 1992: “”Bush Angrily Denounces Report of Extramarital Affair as ‘a Lie'” Staff member Donna Brazile resigns after she claimed Bush was involved in an extramarital affair with Jennifer Fitzgerald (his secretary, 1970s).” (Washington Post)
  • August 17, 1992: California state Peace and Freedom Party Convention convenes in San Diego and nominates Ron Daniels for President.
  • August 17-20, 1992: Republican National Convention convenes in the  Astrodome, Houston, renominates on the 1st ballot George H. W. Bush (Texas) for President, and  Dan Quayle (Indiana) for Vice President. Former President Reagan delivers his last Republican convention address. Patrick Buchanan and televangelist Pat Robertson give prime time addresses. Buchanan calls for a “culture war” and the Republicans appear dogmatic and mean spirited as a result.
  • August 20, 1992: George H. W. Bush accepts the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Houston. President Bush apologizes for breaking his promise of not raising taxes, “Now let me say this: When it comes to taxes, I’ve learned the hard way. There’s an old saying, “Good judgment comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgment.” Two years ago, I made a bad call on the Democrats tax increase. I underestimated Congress’ addiction to taxes. With my back against the wall, I agreed to a hard bargain: One tax increase one time in return for the toughest spending limits ever.”
  • August 19, 1992: “Gov. Bill Clinton, the Democratic Presidential nominee, offered a stinging criticism of President Bush and the Republican Party today, saying their attacks on his wife were an effort to demonize her just as they used the Willie Horton story to depict Michael S. Dukakis as soft on crime. “What they’re trying to do is kind of make it a Willie Horton thing against all independent working women, trying to run against them in a way that I think is really lamentable,” he said.” (NYT)
  • August 20, 1992: George H. W. Bush gives remarks accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Houston.
  • August 30, 1992: American Independent Party Convention nominates Howard Phillips for President.
  • September 5, 1992: U.S. Taxpayers Party Convention nominates Howard Phillips for President.
  • September 23, 1992: “Hillary Clinton seems to be riding a heady backlash from the Republican convention. Her crowds are big, her portrait on the cover of Time magazine this month was downright beatific, and months of careful maneuvering to recast her image may be finally paying off.” (NYT)
  • October 7, 1992: Bush makes an issue of Clinton’s 1969 trip to Moscow, and accuses Clinton of lack of patriotism because of involvement in Vietnam War demonstrations activities. “President Bush accuses Gov. Bill Clinton on Larry King Live of not telling the truth about his visit to Moscow as a student in the late 1960’s and sharply criticized the Democratic nominee for demonstrating against the Vietnam War while he was studying in England.” (NYT)
  • October 9, 1992: Bush softens somewhat a tactic that an aide said had backfired. “If that is what he’s said and that is the whole truth, sure; I accept that,” Mr. Bush said in an interview on the ABC program “Good Morning America.” “If he’s told all there is to tell on Moscow, fine. I’m not suggesting anything unpatriotic about that. A lot of people went to Moscow. That’s the end of that one as far as I’m concerned.” (NYT)
  • October 11, 1992: First Presidential Debate in St. Louis: Perot is the star of debate with his simple solutions to the difficult problems the country was facing
  • October 13, 1992: Vice-Presidential Debate in Atlanta: Vice-President Dan Quayle taunts Albert Gore and annoys the public, turning off the viewers/voters.
  • October 15, 1992: Second Presidential Debate, Virginia University of Richmond, Virginia is moderated by Carole Simpson of ABC News, town hall debate, Clinton shows adeptness with electronic media
  • October 19, 1992: Third Presidential Debate in East Lansing, Michigan
  • October 1, 1992: Ross Perot resumes his Presidential run. Compounded the issue, when he claimed the reason he withdrew was because Republican operatives were trying to ruin his daughter’s wedding.
  • October 1992: Ross Perot’s United We Stand, America ran his campaign, Perot only starts to appear personally at rallies for him nine days before the end of the campaign
  • October 25, 1992: Ross Perot reenters the Presidential race. “Ross Perot says he had withdrawn after hearing that President Bush’s campaign was scheming to smear his daughter with a computer-altered photograph and to disrupt her wedding.” (NYT)
  • October 31, 1992: Independent counsel Lawrence Walsh indicts former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger of the Reagan administration, for his involvement in the Iran-contra affair. The indictment distracts Bush’s campaign and suggests to some that Bush, who had claimed he was “out of the loop,” had possibly not been honest about his own role in the scandal. Bush actually attended a meeting he originally claimed he had not attended.
  • November 3, 1992: Election Day; Democrats Bill Clinton is elected President and Al Gore is elected Vice President.
  • December 14, 1992: Presidential Electors cast the electoral votes in their state capitals.

 

 

 


1996

 

  • January 25, 1993: “President Clinton announces that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton will head the Task Force on National Health Care Reform. The President hopes to reform the nation’s health care system so that all Americans have health insurance, ensuring what is called “universal coverage,” and to control the sky-rocketing costs of health care.”
  • February 26, 1993: “Six people are killed and more than a thousand suffer injuries after a bomb planted under the World Trade Center in New York City explodes. The bomb marks the beginning of a string of threats against the United States made during the Clinton administration by both foreign and domestic terrorists.”
  • August 10, 1993: “President Clinton signs the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. The legislation, which passes both houses of Congress by slim majorities, lays out a plan to reduce the budget deficit by $496 billion through 1998, using a combination of spending cuts and tax increases.”
  • September 22, 1993: “President Clinton unveils a plan for universal health care that would fix what he called a “badly broken” system. Clinton emphasizes that under his plan, all Americans would have high quality health care and would be able to choose their physicians.”
  • December 8, 1993: After a hard-fought battle in Congress, President Clinton signs the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), eliminating nearly every trade barrier between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, creating the world’s largest free trade zone.
  • January 10-11, 1994: President Clinton attends the NATO summit meeting in Brussels, Belgium, at which he announces that the United States will maintain at least 100,000 troops in Europe. He also introduces the “Partnership for Peace” program aimed at building closer ties between NATO and former Warsaw Pact states.
  • June 14, 1994: “President Clinton unveils his welfare reform initiatives. Clinton had campaigned in 1992 on the issue, promising to “end welfare as we know it.””
  • August 26, 1994: “The White House and congressional leaders, including Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME), announce that Clinton’s ambitious plan for health care reform will not be acted upon in 1994. Clinton’s initiatives fail to find support in Congress.”
  • October 9, 1994: “The Clinton administration announces plans to send more than 35,000 troops to the Persian Gulf to deter an Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Less than three days after the announcement, Iraqi troops pull back from the Iraq-Kuwait border.”
  • November 8, 1994: “In mid-term congressional elections, the Republican Party wins control of both houses of Congress for the first time in more than 40 years. It now holds a 53 to 47 advantage in the Senate and a 230 to 214 to 1 lead in the House.”
  • December 1, 1994: “The Senate votes to approve the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that 117 nations, including the United States, agree to in December 1993. (The agreement cuts tariffs by more than a third on a wide-range of products and creates a freer international market for goods.)”
  • December 5, 1994: “President Clinton, along with the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine, signs the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) in Budapest, Hungary. The treaty eliminates more than 9,000 warheads.”
  • April 19, 1995: “In an act of domestic terrorism, a bomb planted in a truck parked in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, kills 168 people and causes massive structural damage. In the days following the tragedy, Clinton, in widely-praised efforts, speaks with victims and to the country about how to recover physically, emotionally, and spiritually from the attack.”
  • July 1, 1995: Prohibition Party Convention nominates Earl F. Dodge Jr. fpr President.
  • October 9, 1995: Socialist Party Convention nominates Mary Cal Hollis for President.
  • November – December, 1995: “President Clinton and the Republican-controlled Congress, led by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA), engage in a political death struggle over how to balance the budget by 2002. Failure to reach an agreement leads to the shut-down of certain parts of the federal government, furloughing more than a quarter of a million government workers.”
  • December 3, 1995: World Workers Party Convention nominates Monica Moorehead for President.
  • President Clinton deters any opposition to his candidacy in the primaries and the first time since 1964, Democrats had no contest in primaries
  • January 11, 1996: Ohio Democratic caucuses
  • January 25, 1996: Hawaii Republican caucuses (through January 31)
  • January 27, 1996: Alaska Republican caucuses (through January 29)
  • February 6, 1996: Louisiana Republican caucuses (21 delegates)
  • February 12, 1996: Iowa caucuses (both parties) Iowa Caucus Bob Dole 26% Pat Buchanan 23% Steve Forbes 10% Lamar Alexander 18% Alan Keyes 7% Richard Lugar 4% Phil Gramm 9% Morry Taylor 1% –
  • February 20, 1996: New Hampshire primary: Pat Buchanan wins the New Hampshire primary benefits from Steve Forbes negative ads against candidate Robert Dole. Bob Dole, senate majority leader from Kansas is the front runner in the polls and fund-raising. Steve Forbes’ well-financed vanity candidacy does not accept matching federal funds for his candidacy; consequently, the caps imposed do not limit his spending.  Forbes’s spent excessive amounts on negative attacks against Bob Dole. New Hampshire Primary Bob Dole 26% Pat Buchanan 27% Steve Forbes 12% Lamar Alexander 22% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 5% – Morry Taylor 2% –
  • February 23, 1996: American Independent Party Convention nominates Diane Beall Templin
  • February 24, 1996: Delaware primary Bob Dole 27% Pat Buchanan 19% Steve Forbes 33% Lamar Alexander 13% Alan Keyes 5% Richard Lugar 5% Phil Gramm 2% – –
  • February 27, 1996: Arizona primary (Republicans only), North Dakota primary (Republicans only), South Dakota primary (Republicans only)
    • Arizona (primary) Bob Dole 30% Pat Buchanan 27% Steve Forbes 33% Lamar Alexander 7% Alan Keyes 1% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
    • North Dakota (primary) Bob Dole 42% Pat Buchanan 18% Steve Forbes 20% Lamar Alexander 6% Alan Keyes 3% Richard Lugar 1% Phil Gramm 9% – –
    • South Dakota (primary) Bob Dole 45% Pat Buchanan 29% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 9% Alan Keyes 4% – – – –
  • March, 1996: Virginia Republican caucuses
  • March 2, 1996: South Carolina primary (Republicans only — party-run), Wyoming Republican caucuses, Dole wins South Carolina with superior organization and a large campaign account. Bob Dole 45% Pat Buchanan 29% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 10% Alan Keyes 2% – – – –
  • March 3 Puerto Rico (primary) Bob Dole 98% – – – – – – – –
  • March 5, 1996: Colorado primary, Connecticut primary, Georgia primary, Idaho Democratic caucuses, Maine primary, Maryland primary, Massachusetts primary, Minnesota caucuses (both parties), Rhode Island primary, South Carolina Democratic caucuses, Vermont primary, Washington caucuses (both parties)
    • Colorado (primary) Bob Dole 43% Pat Buchanan 21% Steve Forbes 21% Lamar Alexander 10% Alan Keyes 4% Phil Gramm 1% – – –
    • Connecticut (primary) Bob Dole 54% Pat Buchanan 15% Steve Forbes 20% Lamar Alexander 5% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
    • Georgia (primary) Bob Dole 41% Pat Buchanan 29% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 14% Alan Keyes 3% – – – –
    • Maine (primary) Bob Dole 46% Pat Buchanan 24% Steve Forbes 15% Lamar Alexander 7% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 3% – – –
    • Maryland (primary) Bob Dole 53% Pat Buchanan 21% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 6% Alan Keyes 5% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
    • Massachusetts (primary) Bob Dole 48% Pat Buchanan 25% Steve Forbes 14% Lamar Alexander 8% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 2% – – –
    • Rhode Island (primary) Bob Dole 64% Pat Buchanan 3% Steve Forbes 1% Lamar Alexander 19% – Richard Lugar 3% – Morry Taylor 1% –
    • Vermont (primary) Bob Dole 40% Pat Buchanan 17% Steve Forbes 16% Lamar Alexander 11% – Richard Lugar 14% Phil Gramm 1% – –
  • March 7, 1996: Missouri Democratic caucuses, New York primary. New York (primary) Bob Dole 55% Pat Buchanan 15% Steve Forbes 30% – – – – – –
  • March 9, 1996: Alaska Democratic caucuses, Arizona Democratic caucuses, Missouri Republican caucuses, South Dakota Democratic caucuses
  • March 10: Nevada Democratic caucuses
  • March 12, 1996: Florida primary, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, Louisiana primary (both parties — 9 GOP delegates), Mississippi primary, Oklahoma primary, Oregon primary, Tennessee primary, Texas primary (both parties and Democratic caucuses) Dole sweeps Southern primaries; seals the Republican nomination. Dole wins the remaining critical primaries, including winner-take-all primaries; Dole amasses the necessary amount of delegates needed for the Republican Presidential nomination.
    • Florida (primary) Bob Dole 57% Pat Buchanan 18% Steve Forbes 20% Lamar Alexander 1% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 2% – – 1%
    • Louisiana (primary) Bob Dole 48% Pat Buchanan 33% Steve Forbes 12% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 3% – – Morry Taylor 1% –
    • Mississippi (primary) Bob Dole 60% Pat Buchanan 26% Steve Forbes 8% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 2% – – – 2%
    • Oklahoma (primary) Bob Dole 59% Pat Buchanan 22% Steve Forbes 14% Lamar Alexander 1% Alan Keyes 2% – – – –
    • Oregon (primary) Bob Dole 51% Pat Buchanan 21% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 7% Alan Keyes 4% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
    • Tennessee (primary) Bob Dole 51% Pat Buchanan 25% Steve Forbes 8% Lamar Alexander 11% Alan Keyes 3% – – – –
    • Texas (primary) Bob Dole 56% Pat Buchanan 21% Steve Forbes 13% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 4% – Phil Gramm 2% – –
  • March 16, 1996: Michigan Democratic caucuses
  • March 19, 1996: Illinois primary, Michigan primary (Republicans only), Ohio primary (Republicans only), Wisconsin primary
    • Illinois (primary) Bob Dole 65% Pat Buchanan 23% Steve Forbes 5% Lamar Alexander 1% Alan Keyes 4% Richard Lugar 1% Phil Gramm 1% – –
    • Michigan (primary) Bob Dole 51% Pat Buchanan 34% Steve Forbes 5% Lamar Alexander 1% Alan Keyes 3% – – – –
    • Ohio (primary) Bob Dole 66% Pat Buchanan 22% Steve Forbes 6% Lamar Alexander 3% Alan Keyes 2% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
    • Wisconsin (primary) Bob Dole 53% Pat Buchanan 34% Steve Forbes 6% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 3% – – – –
  • March 23, 1996: Wyoming Democratic caucuses
  • March 25, 1996: Utah caucuses (both parties)
  • March 25, 1996: Socialist Workers Party Campaign nominee James E. Harris
  • March 26, 1996: California primary, Nevada primary (Republicans only), Washington primary (Republicans only)
    • California (primary) Bob Dole 66% Pat Buchanan 18% Steve Forbes 7% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 4% Richard Lugar 1% Phil Gramm 1% – Bob Dornan 1%
    • Nevada (primary) Bob Dole 52% Pat Buchanan 15% Steve Forbes 19% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 1% – – – –
    • Washington (primary) Bob Dole 63% Pat Buchanan 21% Steve Forbes 9% Lamar Alexander 1% Alan Keyes 5% – – – –
  • March 29, 1996: North Dakota Democratic caucuses
  • April 2, 1996: Kansas primary (canceled — Republican State Committee chose delegates)
  • April 9, 1996: “President Clinton signs a bill giving him the power of the “line-item veto,” which had been requested by Presidents Reagan and Bush. With this new power, Clinton can veto specific items in spending and tax bills without vetoing the entire measure.”
  • April 13, 1996: Virginia Democratic caucuses (and April 15)
  • April 23, 1996: Pennsylvania primary, Bob Dole 64% Pat Buchanan 18% Steve Forbes 8% – Lamar Alexander 6% Alan Keyes 5% – – –
  • April 29, 1996: Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California fundraising event with Al Gore as the keynote speaker. DNC fund-raisers John Huang and Maria Hsia organize the event although it is illegal for religious institutions as non-profit organizations to contribute to political campaigns, candidates or parties. Hsia was convicted in March 2000, and the funds were returned to the Temple’s monks and nuns. (“Vice President Al Gore attends a Democratic National Committee fund-raising event at a Buddhist temple in Los Angeles. Gore and the DNC raise more than $60,000, but so through questionable interpretations of several campaign finance laws. The Clinton administration comes under increasing criticism in its second term for these alleged violations.”)
  • May 1996: Dole reaches over spending limit under the federal campaign law, had no money to respond to Clinton’s negative advertising
  • May 4, 1996: Grassroots Party Convention nominates Dennis Peron for President.
  • May 7, 1996: Indiana primary, North Carolina primary
    • Washington D.C. (primary) Bob Dole 75% Pat Buchanan 9% – – – – – – –
    • Indiana (primary) Bob Dole 71% Pat Buchanan 19% Steve Forbes 10% – – – – – –
    • North Carolina (primary) Bob Dole 71% Pat Buchanan 13% Steve Forbes 4% Lamar Alexander 2% Alan Keyes 4% Richard Lugar 1% – – –
  • May 14, 1996: Nebraska primary, West Virginia primary
    • Nebraska (primary) Bob Dole 76% Pat Buchanan 10% Steve Forbes 6% Lamar Alexander 3% Alan Keyes 3% – – – –
    • West Virginia (primary) Bob Dole 69% Pat Buchanan 16% Steve Forbes 5% Lamar Alexander 3% Alan Keyes 4% Richard Lugar 1% Phil Gramm 2% – –
  • May 15, 1996, 1996: “President Clinton announces that American troops will likely remain in Bosnia as the major component of an international peacekeeping force for an additional eighteen months.”
  • May 15, 1996: Dole resigns from the Senate.
  • May 21, 1996: Arkansas primary Bob Dole 76% Pat Buchanan 23% – – – – – – –
  • May 28, 1996: Idaho primary (Republicans only), Kentucky primary Idaho (primary) Bob Dole 66% Pat Buchanan 22% – – Alan Keyes 5% – – – –
  • May 28, 1996: “In the first trial to result from the Whitewater investigation, Jim and Susan McDougal, and Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker-Clinton’s friends and former business partners in the Whitewater affair are convicted of fraud.”
  • June 1992: Clinton meets with top FBI and CIA aides in hope of organizing a successful sting against the Russian Mafia, which had been rumored to be interested in selling a nuclear missile. The operation fails.
  • June 4, 1996: Alabama primary, Montana primary (Democrats only, Republican beauty contest — no delegates at stake), New Jersey primary, New Mexico primary
    • Alabama (primary) Bob Dole 76% Pat Buchanan 16% Alan Keyes 3%
    • Montana (primary) Bob Dole 61% Pat Buchanan 24% Steve Forbes 7% – –
    • New Jersey (primary) Bob Dole 82% Pat Buchanan 11% – – Alan Keyes 7%
    • New Mexico (primary) Bob Dole 76% Pat Buchanan 8% Steve Forbes 6% Lamar Alexander 4% Alan Keyes 3% Bob Dornan 1%
  • June 5-13, 1996: Montana Republican caucuses
  • July 1, 1996: American First Campaign nominee Ralph Forbes for President.
  • July 4, 1996: Libertarian Party Convention nominates Harry Browne for President.
  • July 25, 1996: Right to Life Convention nominates Howard Phillips for President.
  • July 25, 1996: Peace & Freedom Party Convention nominates party leader Marsha Feinland for President.
  • July 25, 1996: C.U.R.E. “Constitutionally Unified Republic for Everyone”  Convention nominates Charles E. Collins. Former Arizona Governor Evan Mecham backs the party.
  • Dole Chooses for his running-mate former Representative Jack Kemp, conservative from New York, former NFL quarterback for the Buffalo Bills football team
  • August 12-15, 1996: Republican National Convention convenes in the San Diego Convention Center; San Diego nominates on the 1st ballot, Robert J. Dole  (Kansas) for President, Jack Kemp (Maryland) Convention theme: “compassion and conservatism.” Republican Party nominates Dole on the first ballot 1,928 of the 1,990 votes
  • August 18, 1996: Reform Party Convention nominates H. Ross Perot
  • August 18, 1996: U.S. Taxpayers Party National Convention convenes in San Diego and nominates Howard Phillips for President and Herbert W. Titus (Virginia) for Vice President.
  • August 19, 1996: Green Party National Convention convenes in Los Angeles, California, and nominates Ralph Nader for President and Winona LaDuke for Vice President.
  • August 24, 1996: Natural Law Party Convention nominates John Hagelin for President.
  • August 26-29, 1996: Democratic National Convention convenes at United Center in Chicago, Illinois, and renominates by acclamation, William J. Clinton (Arkansas) for President, and Albert A. Gore, Jr. (Tennessee) for Vice President.
  • August 26, 1996: Christopher Reeve spoke on the first night calling for expanded research into diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injuries, and AIDS.
  • August 27, 1996: Second Night theme is families; First Lady Hillary Clinton speaks on family values
  • August 28, 1996: Third night, Vice President Al Gore speaks about the Democratic Party leading the nation into the 21st Century.
  • August 29, 1996: Fourth night Bill Clinton accepts the “Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago”; President Clinton speaks of his first administration’s achievements.
  • Summer 1996: Clinton uses ads to depict Dole as “an aged conservative far from the mainstream,” link Dole to Newt Gingrich, cuts in Medicare, education, environment.
  • Clinton maintains an advantage, because Dole has reached his funding spending limit for the primaries and can not respond or attack back.
  • August 28, 1996: Dick Morris, Clinton’s campaign advisor is alerted the Star tabloid magazine is intending to run a story that he was having an year long affair with a Washington prostitute.
  • August 29, 1996: Morris is forced to resign from the campaign. Morris delivers his resignation in the morning. ”I will not dignify such journalism with a reply or an answer. I never will.”
  • August 29, 1996: “White House Takes Swift Action to Distance Itself From Political Aide. President Clinton’s advisers moved today to contain the damage from the resignation of Dick Morris by refusing to confirm a tabloid report that he had a yearlong affair with a prostitute and by seeking to create a fire wall between him and Mr. Clinton.” (NYT)
  • September 19, 1996: The Commission on Presidential Debates concludes Perot does not have a “realistic chance of election” and therefore would not be allowed to participate in the President debates.
  • Clinton hopes to broker a last-minute deal between the Palestinians and Israelis. The two sides however only agreed to more talks.
  • September 1995: Dole gains momentum when the press uncovers the National Democrats might be engaging in questionable fund-raising practices, and accepting donations from foreign countries, tax exempt religious institutions which is strictly prohibited
  • October 6, 1996: First Presidential Debate in Hartford
  • October 9, 1996: Vice-Presidential Debate in St. Petersburg
  • October 16, 1996: Second Presidential Debate in San Diego
  • September 19, 1996: Bob Dole falls off a stage at a rally on in Chico, California; a railing he leans over gives way.
  • September 18, 1996: Dole mistakenly references the “Brooklyn Dodgers”, the team had left Brooklyn four decades prior, a few days later to make light of the gaffe, Dole jokes “And I’d like to congratulate the St. Louis Cardinals on winning the N.L. Central. Notice I said the St. Louis Cardinals not the St. Louis Browns.” (the Browns left in 1954, becoming the Baltimore Orioles).
  • Doles references the Soviet Union as though it still existed, shows Dole is out of place with the times.
  • November 5, 1996: Election Day; Democrats Bill Clinton is reelected President and Al Gore reelected Vice President.
  • December 16, 1996: Presidential Electors cast the electoral in their state capitols.
  • February 13, 1997: The Washington Post publishes a story that a U.S. Department of Justice investigation uncovers that Chinese agents were donating money to the Democratic National Committee through the Chinese Embassy in Washington.  “Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed” It is illegal for non-American citizens from donating to U.S. politicians and parties. Seventeen were convicted in connection

 

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