1924

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN & ELECTIONS

OVERVIEWS & CHRONOLOGIES: 1924

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

OVERVIEW

Election Year: 1924

Election Day Date: November 4, 1924

Winning Ticket:

  • Calvin Coolidge, Charles Dawes, Republican 15,723,789 54.04% 382 71.9%

Losing Ticket(s):

  • John Davis, Charles Bryan, Democratic 8,386,242 28.82% 136 25.6%
  • Robert La Follette, Burton Wheeler, Progressive 4,831,706 16.61% 13 2.4%
  • Other (+) – – 155,370 0.53% 0 0.0%

Voter Turnout: 48.9%

Central Forums/Campaign Methods for Addressing Voters:

Election Law/Campaign Finance Changes:

  • Alabama presidential primary law of 1924 (empowering Senator Oscar W. Underwood, Alabama’s favorite son, to name his own delegates)
  • Primary laws repealed Vermont (1921) Montana (1923)

Incumbent President and Vice President on Election Day:

Calvin Coolidge, None, Republican 1923-1929

Population: 1924: 114,109,000

GDP: 164 Nominal GDP (billions of dollars): $86.9 Real GDP (billions of 2005 dollars): $827.4 GDP Deflator (index 2005=100%) 10.51 Population (in thousands): 114,109 Nominal GDP per capita (current dollars): $762 Real GDP per capita (year 2005 dollars): $7,251

Number of Daily Newspapers: 2,441 (1920)

Average Daily Circulation: 33,028,630 (1920)

Households with: Radio: 1,250,000 (1924)

Method of Choosing Electors: Popular vote (mostly General Ticket/Winner Take All)

Method of Choosing Nominees:

  • National party convention;
  • Presidential preference primaries

Central Issues (Nomination/Primaries):

  • Warren Harding died of a heart attack in August 1923
  • Teapot Dome scandals; secretly leasing oil reserves for bribes
  • Vice President Calvin Coolidge becomes President.
  • Coolidge was honest, fired the wrongdoers, hired special prosecutors to investigate.
  • Conservative Administration policies
  • Republicans lost 78 congressional seats in the 1922 midterm election

Leading Candidates (Nomination/Primaries):

Republican Party Candidates

  • President Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts
  • Senator Hiram Johnson of California
  • Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin

Democratic Party candidates:

  • John W. Davis, U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom (West Virginia)
  • William G. McAdoo, former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from (California)
  • Al Smith, governor (New York)
  • Oscar W. Underwood, U.S. senator (Alabama)

Main Controversies (Nomination/Primaries):

Teapot Dome Scandal;

Campaign Innovations (Nomination/Primaries):

Major Personalities (Nomination/Primaries): William G. McAdoo; Charles W. Bryan;

Turning Points (Nomination/Primaries):

  • Coolidge took control of the Republican party machinery
  • Coolidge won 15 primaries to Hiram Johnson’s one in South Dakota. Coolidge even won Johnson’s home state of California
  • Teapot Dome Scandal: Senate hearings revealed that William Gibbs McAdoo, -was put on retainer by Edward Doheny, oilman involved in the Teapot Dome scandal. McAdoo not involved in the diversion of federal oil reserves, nevertheless tarnished.
  • McAdoo only major Democratic contender in the primaries; won enough delegates to be the frontrunner at the convention
  • Alfred Smith chose not to run in the primaries
  • Front runners William Gibbs McAdoo and Alfred Smith deadlock at the convention “McAdoo Oil” vs. “Smith Beer”

Primaries Quotations:

  • “Nominate a man who lives in a two-family home? Never! Massachusetts is not for him!” Senator Henry Cabot Lodge about middle-class Coolidge being elected for President in 1924

Primaries:

  • Democratic 14, 35.5 delegates
  • Republican 17, 45.3 delegates

Primaries Results:

Republican Party:  Jul 01, 1924

Calvin Coolidge(I)  2,410,363, 68.38% (Won 15 primaries including California)

Hiram W. Johnson 1,007,833, 28.59% (Won 1 primary South Dakota)

Robert Marion La Follette, 82,492, 2.34%

Others 12,903, 0.37%

William O. Simpson 10,268, 0.29%

Unpledged 1,326 0.04%

Democratic Party:

  • William Gibbs McAdoo: 562,601, 56.05%
  • Oscar Wilder Underwood: 77,583, 7.73%
  • James Middleton Cox: 74,183, 7.39%
  • Unpledged: 59,217, 5.90%
  • Henry Ford: 49,737, 4.95%
  • Thomas J. Walsh: 43,108, 4.29%
  • Woodbridge Nathan Ferris: 42,028, 4.19%
  • George Sebastian Silzer: 35,601, 3.55%
  • Others: 29,475, 2.94%
  • Alfred E. Smith: 16,459, 1.64%
  • L.B. Musgrove: 12,110, 1.21%
  • William Dever: 1,574, 0.16%
  • James A. Reed: 84 0.01%
  • John W. Davis: 21, 0.00%

Conventions (Dates & Locations):

  • Republican National Convention: June 10-12, 1924, Public Auditorium; Cleveland 1 Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts), Charles G. Dawes (Illinois)
  • Democratic National Convention: June 24-July 9, 1924, Madison Square Garden; New York Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) 103 John W. Davis (New York), Charles W. Bryan (Nebraska)

Convention Turning Points:

Republican Party:

  • Most boring Republican convention in history, low attendance;
  • Charles Dawes nominated for vice-president over Herbert Hoover

Democratic Party:

  • Longest Presidential party convention in history,16 days, convened on June 24th and adjourned on July 9th
  • Rural v. urban clash: Alfred E. Smith of New York, opposed Prohibition and the Klu Klux Klan; William Gibbs McAdoo of California, supported Prohibition and tolerated the Ku Klux Klan
  • 16 candidates on the ballot
  • William Jennings Bryan opposed John W. Davis for the nomination
  • Deadlocked for nine days, McAdoo and Smith withdraw after the 99th ballot; the compromise candidate John W. Davis nominated on the 103rd ballot; Charles W. Bryan, William Jennings Bryan’s brother and governor of Nebraska chosen as Vice Presidential candidate

Convention Quotations:

  • “Never wasted any time, never wasted any words, and never wasted any public money.” Republican at the convention describing Calvin Collidge
  • “Everything is still uncertain in this convention but one thing. John W. Davis will never be nominated…. Why that’s incredible! I’ve already sent off a story that it’s impossible. I wonder if those idiots in Baltimore will have sense enough to drop the negative.” H.L. Mencken, Baltimore Sun at the Democratic National Convention before and immediately after John Davis’ nomination

Number of Ballots to Choose Nominees:

Republican Party Nomination

Presidential 1st ballot

  • Calvin Coolidge, President (Massachusetts) 1065
  • Senator Robert LaFollette 34
  • California Senator Hiram Johnson 10

Vice-presidential 3rd ballot

Charles Dawes White House Budget Director Wisconsin Illinois 149 111 49 682.5

Former Illinois Governor Frank O. Lowden 222 413 766 0

Ohio Congressman Theodore E. Burton 139 288 94 0

Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover of California 0 0 0 234.5

Iowa Senator William S. Kenyon 172 95 68 75

Pennsylvania Congressman George S. Graham 81 0 0 0

Indiana Senator James E. Watson 79 55 7 45

Kansas Senator Charles Curtis 56 31 24 0

Missouri Governor Arthur M. Hyde 55 36 36 0

Nebraska Senator George W. Norris 35 0 0 0

Iowa Senator Smith W. Brookhart 0 31 0 0

Utah delegate Frank T. Hines 28 1 0 0

Charles A. March 28 0 0 0

Tennessee Congressman James W. Taylor 21 20 27 27

Former Maryland Senator William P. Jackson 23 0 0 10

Ambassador to Japan Charles B. Warren of New York 10 1 23 14

Former Delaware Senator Thomas C. DuPont 0 0 3 11

Montana Governor Joseph M. Dixon 6 0 0 2

Indiana Congressman Everett Sanders 0 0 0 4

Former U.S. Army Major General James G. Harbord of New York 1 0 0 3

Former Indiana Senator Albert J. Beveridge 0 0 0 2

John L. Coulter of North Dakota 1 0 0 1

California Businessman William Wrigley 1 0 0 1

Army Chief of Staff John J. Pershing of Missouri 0 0 0 0

Vice President 3rd ballot

Charles G. Dawes149 111 49 682.5

Frank O. Lowden 222 413 76 60

Theodore E. Burton1 392 88940

Herbert C. Hoover 000234.5

William S. Kenyon172956875

George S. Graham81000

James E. Watson7955745

Charles Curtis5631240

Arthur M. Hyde5536360

Scattering156806572

Democratic Party nomination

Presidential vote 103rd ballot (9 days)

1st ballot

William G. McAdoo   431.5 votes (39.4%)

Alfred E. Smith     241   votes (22.0%)

James M. Cox         59   votes (5.4%)

Pat Harrison         43.5 votes (4.0%)

Oscar W. Underwood   42.5 votes (3.9%)

George S. Silzer     38   votes (3.5%)

John W. Davis        31   votes (2.8%)

Samuel M. Ralston    30   votes (2.7%)

Woodbridge N. Ferris 30   votes (2.7%)

Carter Glass         25   votes (2.3%)

Albert C. Ritchie    22.5 votes (2.1%)

Joseph T. Robinson   21   votes (1.9%)

Jonathan M. Davis    20   votes (1.8%)

Charles W. Bryan     18   votes (1.6%)

Fred H. Brown        17   votes (1.6%)

William Sweet        12   votes (1.1%)

Willard Saulsbury     7   votes (0.6%)

John Kendrick         6   votes (0.5%)

Houston Thompson      1   vote  (0.1%)

15th ballot

William G. McAdoo   431.5 votes (39.4%)

Alfred E. Smith     241   votes (22.0%)

James M. Cox         59   votes (5.4%)

Pat Harrison        43.5 votes (4.0%)

Oscar W. Underwood   42.5 votes (3.9%)

George S. Silzer     38   votes (3.5%)

John W. Davis        31   votes (2.8%)

Samuel M. Ralston    30   votes (2.7%)

Woodbridge N. Ferris 30   votes (2.7%)

Carter Glass         25   votes (2.3%)

Albert C. Ritchie    22.5 votes (2.1%)

Joseph T. Robinson   21   votes (1.9%)

Jonathan M. Davis    20   votes (1.8%)

Charles W. Bryan     18   votes (1.6%)

Fred H. Brown        17   votes (1.6%)

William Sweet        12   votes (1.1%)

Willard Saulsbury     7   votes (0.6%)

John Kendrick         6   votes (0.5%)

Houston Thompson      1   vote  (0.1%)

100th ballot

Alfred E. Smith     351.5 votes (32.4%)

John W. Davis       203.5 votes (18.7%)

William G. McAdoo   190   votes (17.5%)

Edwin T. Meredith    75.5 votes (7.0%)

Thomas J. Walsh      52.5 votes (4.8%)

Joseph T. Robinson   46   votes (4.2%)

Oscar W. Underwood   41.5 votes (3.8%)

Carter Glass         35   votes (3.2%)

Josephus Daniels     24   votes (2.2%)

Robert L. Owen       20   votes (1.8%)

Albert C. Ritchie   17.5 votes (1.6%)

James W. Gerard      10   votes (0.9%)

David F. Houston      9   votes (0.8%)

Willard Saulsbury     6   votes (0.6%)

Charles W. Bryan      2   votes (0.2%)

George L. Berry       1   vote  (0.1%)

Newton D. Baker       1   vote  (0.1%)

103rd ballot

Ambassador John W. Davis           844 (26.33%)

Secretary of Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo 530 (16.54%)

Gov. Alfred E. Smith        368 (11.48%)

Sen. Oscar Wilder Underwood 317 (9.89%)

Sen. Samuel M. Ralston 197 (6.15%)

Secretary of Agriculture Edwin Thomas Meredith 130 (4.06%)

Sen. Thomas J. Walsh 123 (3.84%)

Sen. Carter Glass 79 (2.47%)

Gov. James Middleton Cox 61 (1.90%)

Secretary of War Newton Diehl Baker 58 (1.81%)

Minority Leader Joseph Taylor Robinson 46 (1.44%)

Sen. Byron P. “Pat” Harrison        44 (1.37%)

Gov. Albert C. Ritchie 43 (1.34%)

Gov. George Sebastian Silzer 38 (1.19%)

Gov. Jonathan M. Davis 33 (1.03%)

Sen. Woodbridge Nathan Ferris 30 (0.94%)

Sen. Robert Latham Owen 25 (0.78%)

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 24 (0.75%)

John Stewart Battle 20 (0.62%)

Martin Behrman 20 (0.62%)

Rep. Cordell Hull 20 (0.62%)

Gov. Charles Wayland Bryan 19 (0.59%)

Gov. Fred H. Brown         17 (0.53%)

Sen. Royal S. Copeland 17 (0.53%)

Ambassador James Watson Gerard 16 (0.50%)

Sen. Willard Saulsbury, Jr. 12 (0.37%)

Gov. William Ellery Sweet 12 (0.37%)

Chairman Homer Stille Cummings 9 (0.28%)

Secretary of Treasury David Franklin Houston 9 (0.28%)

Sen. John B. Kendrick 6 (0.19%)

A Murphree 4 (0.13%)

V.P. Thomas R. Marshall 3 (0.09%)

Sen. David Ignatius Walsh 3 (0.09%)

George Leonard Berry 2 (0.06%)

St. Sen. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 2 (0.06%)

Scattering: Remainder

Third Party Candidates & Nominations:

Progressive Party:

  • Presidential, Wisconsin’s Progressive Republican Senator Robert M. La Follette (“Fighting Bob”); Vice Presidential, Democratic Senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana
  • Hoping to serve as a spoiler, prevent a majority, throw  the election to the House of Representatives, then win as a compromise
  • Convention in Cleveland, July 1925, 1200 delegates and 9000 spectators (farmers, workers, craftsmen, preachers, professors, housewives, small businessmen) attended

Communist Party:

  • Presidential William Z. Foster
  • Called Progressive platform “the most reactionary document of the year.”

Convention Keynote Speaker:

Democratic Party: Pat Harrison, U.S. Senator, MS

Party Platform/Issues:

  • Republican Party: Reduce taxes; participate in World Court; establish Cabinet-level departments of education and relief; aid farmers; broaden export markets; encourage commercial aviation; need for federal anti-lynching law
  • Democratic Party:
  • Intense battle over the platform; need national referendum to decide entry to the League of Nations; affirm importance of religious liberties; motion to condemn the (anti-Catholic, racist) Ku Klux Klan in the platform blocked.

Convention Quotations:

  • “Half a vote, half a vote onward, into the jaws of debt, into the mouth of hell, moves the convention” Democratic delegate about the extremely long nominating process

General Election Controversies/Issues:

  • Identification of Coolidge with prosperity
  • Progressive Party’s radical platform

Campaign Innovations (General Election): 

  • The use of radio to address voters

Campaign Tactics:

  • Neither of the two major party candidates actively campaigned, unexciting speakers
  • Republican Party:

(In the campaign that followed, the stage management of the Presidential candidate was bad. He was smocked and put to pitching hay in Vermont. He was touted as the poor man’s candidate. No more obvious, cynically conscious demagoguery ever was flaunted in the faces of the American people than the methods used in the campaign of 1924 to promote the candidacy of President Coolidge. He won, not because of this demagogy, but in spite of it. Through it and over it, he appealed to something in the American heart. He developed talent as a radio speaker. He spoke slowly, used short sentences, discarded unusual words, was direct, forthright and unsophisticated in his utterances. And so, over the radio, he went straight to the popular heart. His radio campaign helped greatly because it is one of the few campaign mediums by which the President always appears with his best foot forward. During the campaign he had little to say and said it well. In a year of confusion and babbling his reticence was unanswerable. Also the situation resolved itself into a contest not between Calvin Coolidge and John W. Davis, his Democratic opponent, but between Coolidge and either Bryan, the Democratic Vice-Presidential candidate, or possibly La Follette, who was out seeking the radical vote.)

William Allen White. Calvin Coolidge, the Man Who Is President. New York: The Macmillan Company,1925. 139.

Turning Points (General Election):

  • La Follette’s appeal in the Midwest and West attracted votes primarily from the already crippled Democratic ticket.

Popular Campaign Slogans:

Republican Party: Calvin Coolidge “Keep cool with Coolidge”

Campaign Song:

  • Republican Party: Keep Cool and Keep Coolidge

Influential Campaign Appeals or Ads:

Money Spent (Each Campaign/Party/Overall):

Defining Quotation (Winning Candidate):

“I believe I can swing it.” Calvin Coolidge

“When he went, the power and glory of the Presidency went with him. I don’t know why such a price was exacted for occupying the White House.” Calvin Coolidge about his son’s death in 1924

Defining Quotation (Losing Candidate):

  • “I’m radical, but not too darned radical. Just enough to make the farmers and the laborers high-paid people.” Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

Famous books that defined or resulted from the campaign: 

Lasting Legacy of Campaign:

  • This was the first presidential election in which all American Indians were citizens and thus allowed to vote.
  • Coolidge’s 25.2-point victory margin in the popular vote is one of the largest ever.

 

CHRONOLOGY

  • 1921: Vermont Primary laws are repealed
  • November 1922: Mid-Term Elections: Republicans lose 78 congressional seats in the midterm election
  • 1923: Montana repeals their primary laws
  • Teapot Dome scandals; secretly leasing oil reserves for bribes Teapot Dome Scandal: Senate hearings revealed that William Gibbs McAdoo, -was put on retainer by Edward Doheny, oilman involved in the Teapot Dome scandal. McAdoo not involved in the diversion of federal oil reserves, nevertheless tarnished.
  • August 2, 1923: President Warren Harding dies of a heart attack.
  • August 3, 1923: Vice President Calvin Coolidge succeeds to the Presidency.  “At a 2:30 a.m. ceremony in Plymouth, Vermont, Calvin Coolidge is sworn in by his father as the thirtieth President of the United States.”
  • 1923: Alfred Smith chooses not to run in the primaries
  • December 1, 1923: There will be just a little more than the Republican nomination for the Presidency at stake when the supporters of Hiram Johnson and Calvin Coolidge go to the Oregon Republican primaries next April.
  • 1924: Alabama presidential primary law of 1924 (empowering Senator Oscar W. Underwood, Alabama’s favorite son, to name his own delegates)
  • February 1, 1924: People’s Progressive Convention results in no nominee.
  • February 9, 1924: Commonwealth Land Party Convention nominates William J. Wallace for President.
  • March 4, 1924: Calvin Coolidge unanimously wins the Iowa caucus.
  • March 18, 1924: The House passes the Soldiers’ Bonus Bill.  (“Providing twenty-year annuities for veterans at an overall cost of $2 billion, the bill is passed by the House. One month later, the Senate also passes the bill only to have Coolidge veto it; Congress will later override the veto.”)
  • May 13, 1924: Socialist Labor Party Convention nominates Frank T. Johns for President.
  • June 4, 1924: American Convention nominates Gilbert Owen Nations for President.
  • June 6, 1924: Prohibition Convention nominates Herman Preston Faris for President.
  • June 10-12, 1924: Republican National Convention convenes at the Public Auditorium in Cleveland, Ohio and nominates on the 1st ballot Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts) for President, and Charles G. Dawes (Illinois) for Vice President. Most boring Republican convention in history with low attendance; Charles Dawes is nominated for vice-president over Herbert Hoover
  • June 12, 1920: “The refusal of thirty-four La Follette delegates from Wisconsin and North Dakota to make the nomination of President Calvin Coolidge unanimous was perhaps the outstanding feature of the morning session of the Republican Convention.”
  • June 19, 1924: Farm Labor Party Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President.
  • July 1, 1924: End Democratic Primaries William Gibbs McAdoo only major Democratic contender in the primaries; wins enough delegates to be the frontrunner at the convention.
  • July 1, 1924: End Republican Primaries Calvin Coolidge wins 15 primaries to Hiram Johnson’s one in South Dakota. Coolidge even wins Johnson’s home state of California
  • July 4, 1924: Progressive Party Convention convenes in Cleveland and nominates Wisconsin’s Progressive Republican Senator Robert M. La Follette (“Fighting Bob”) for President, and Democratic Senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana for Vice President. The Progressives hope to serve as a spoiler, prevent a majority, and throw the election to the House of Representatives, then win as a compromise. 1200 delegates and 9000 spectators (farmers, workers, craftsmen, preachers, professors, housewives, small businessmen) attend.
  • July 8, 1924: Socialist Party Convention nominates Robert Marion La Follette for President.
  • July 9, 1924: Greenback Convention nominates John Zahnd for President.
  • July 11, 1924: Wk Convention nominates William Zebulon Foster for President.
  • June 24-July 9, 1924: Democratic National Convention convenes at Madison Square Garden, New York. Thomas J. Walsh (Montana) serves as chairman. The convention nominates on the 103rd ballot John W. Davis (New York) for President, and Charles W. Bryan (Nebraska) for Vice President. Longest Presidential party convention in history lasts 16 days, convenes on June 24th and adjourned on July 9th. The front runners are William Gibbs McAdoo and Alfred Smith deadlock at the convention; “McAdoo Oil” vs. “Smith Beer”. Rural v. urban clash: Alfred E. Smith of New York, opposes Prohibition and the Klu Klux Klan; William Gibbs McAdoo of California, supports Prohibition and tolerates  the Ku Klux Klan. There are sixteen candidates on the ballot. William Jennings Bryan opposes John W. Davis for the nomination
  • June 24-July 9, 1924: Democratic National Convention deadlocks for nine days. McAdoo and Smith withdraw after the 99th ballot. The compromise candidate John W. Davis is nominated on the 103rd ballot. Charles W. Bryan, William Jennings Bryan’s brother and governor of Nebraska is chosen as the Vice Presidential candidate. There is an intense battle over the platform; need national referendum to decide entry to the League of Nations; affirm importance of religious liberties; motion to condemn the (anti-Catholic, racist) Ku Klux Klan in the platform is blocked.
  • August 30, 1924: “The Dawes Plan is signed by the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Belgium to solve the German reparations problem and to end the occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgium troops.” (“Overseen by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, the plan was drawn up by Coolidge’s running-mate, Charles G. Dawes, and based the reparations schedule on what Germany could pay rather than on what she could be forced to pay. For his part, Dawes would win the Nobel Peace Prize the following year.”)
  • September 18, 1924: “The last U.S. Marines, first sent to Santo Domingo in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson, withdraw from the Dominican Republic, finalizing a process begun three years earlier by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. During this period, the United States helped the country prepare for free elections and, ultimately, independence. The withdrawal reversed decades of U.S. involvement in the Dominican Republic under the auspices of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.”
  • October 4, 1924: Republican Presidential campaign commences in Ohio, Hughes gives an address and gives his position on all the issues of the campaign. “HUGHES ANSWERS CRITICS OF PARTY; Says Character of Coolidge Confounds Those Who Assail Republican Honesty.” (NYT)
  • Coolidge visits a reservation and poses in Indian regalia; Will Rogers wires him: “Politics makes strange red-fellows.”
  • November 4, 1924: Election Day; Calvin Coolidge is elected President, and Charles G. Dawes is elected Vice President. La Follette’s appeal in the Midwest and West attracts votes primarily from the already crippled Democratic ticket.
  • November 9, 1924: “COOLIDGE DICTATED CAMPAIGN POLICIES; Public Was Never Aware of Advisory Publicity Board Which He Directed. Republican campaign workers who know “the inside story” of the campaign strategy which elected President Coolidge by such a decisive vote are hailing the President as one of the master political strategists of American history. They say that he has emerged from the campaign as a much bigger figure in the public eye than before he had won the Presidency in his own name.” (NYT)
  • January 12, 1925: Presidential Electors cast the electoral vote in their state capitols.
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